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19h
comment Are there any papers arguing against vaccination in French?
You could find credible sources arguing against specific vaccines but not against vaccination in general. That's like looking for credible sources arguing that the earth is flat.
19h
comment In protein-protein interactions what is the difference between a binding site and an interface?
We can't give you an answer without more context. Neither of those terms is really standard, so what they mean will depend on context. Could you give some examples?
2d
comment Why Pan_troglodytes-2.1.3 Assembly renamed as a Pre in ENSEMBL?
There may be other ways. Please edit your question and explain what you're actually trying to do. What do you mean by "cross annotations"? Do you want to find homologous genes? Syntenic regions? If you tell us what you need, we might be able to help without BioMart.
May
23
comment Why do we have buttocks at the back and not in the front?
Well, for one thing, it is far more comfortable to sit on your buttocks than on your testicles if you happen to be male.
May
21
comment Specific genetic code sequence
@BjørnKjos-Hanssen the main issue is that 1) there is no sequence that is "famous" outside biology, really and 2) within biology there are loads. Most people who've worked in genomics will be able to name at least a few codons (three nucleotide sequences), and other, regulatory sequences. Then there are classic motifs and repetitive elements which are quite well known. If you edit this to clarify the type of thing you are looking for and what you mean by "famous" it could be answerable.
May
19
comment Programmatic way to differentiate homodimers from heterodimers?
Could you provide us with an example? Preferably one that is a homodimer and one that is a heterodimer.
May
18
comment The Uniqueness of DNA Paradox
@Gordon you should also consider that the same DNA would not make the exact same individual. There is a lot of randomness involved. Consider, for example, identical twins and their differences in character. You also have random mutations occurring during an individuals lifetime or development. In any case, you should not confuse 2 people with identical DNA with reincarnation which implies some sort of continuity or link between these individuals.
May
14
comment Why are there ghost images of objects just out of focus
@AliceD I agree with the OP that this is not a personal medical question but rather one asking about how the eye itself works.
May
14
comment how to find accurately the closest species to my plant species?
Please edit your question and explain what data you have. What species is this? Do you have its entire genome? Specific genes? Are there any sequences for this species or no sequences at all?
May
10
comment Without help of Insects, can plants & trees bear fruits & flowers?
What plants? Trees are plants, by the way, but what trees? Please edit this question so it is about specific species or classes of species.
May
9
comment How does frame-shift mutation not absolutely ruin the organism?
Oh good grief. I was really on fire that day. I also had a stupid error in my own answer. Sorry about that, Sleepses, @mdperry, comment deleted.
May
9
comment History: Building a “Phylogenetic network” of famous evolutionary biologists
It also falls under the six degrees theory. There are very few evolutionary biologists in the world, of course they're all related somehow or other. This goes double for the evolutionary biologists of a century ago. There were very few of them so of course, by definition, they mentored each other.
May
6
comment How does frame-shift mutation not absolutely ruin the organism?
@canadianer you're absolutely right, of course. I have no idea what I was thinking of. I leave genomics for 5 years and I forget the basics! Answer edited, thanks for pointing it out and my apologies for being dense.
May
6
comment How does frame-shift mutation not absolutely ruin the organism?
@canadianer no, it will only affect the downstream sequence of its own exon. The splicing signals are not codons and won't be affected unless the frameshift occurs in the acceptor or donor sequences themselves. How would a frameshift affect a different exon otherwise? Remember that we're discussing frameshifts that happen at the DNA level. Naturally, post transcriptional modifications/mutations are a whole different ballgame.
May
5
comment Determining the percentage of the query of an alignment from a BLAST output
Please don't post images of text. Instead, use the formatting tools and add the text directly into your question. That way, we can copy it and test our answers. Also, since this is essentially a scripting question, please clarify what operating system you are using so we know what type of answer to provide. I assume you realize that your output shows that residues 4 through 146 of a 146aa query are aligned, right?
May
2
comment One Gene and many proteins
This question cannot be answered in its current form. How many of the exons contain a valid START codon? How many exons are in UTRs? How many actually code for protein and don't contain in-frame STOP codons? Please edit and make it more specific.
Apr
25
comment When is Water Produced During Photosynthesis?
@aandreev You can't think of this reaction as a math formula, the water on the right is actually produced by the reaction, it is not left over. While green plants use $H_{2}O$, some bacteria use $H_2S$ instead and they also produce water on the right. Also, this shows the net reaction which has many, many intermediate steps. The basic reaction is $CO_2+2H_2O \rightarrow (CH_{2}O)+O_2+H_2O$. However, to produce glucose ($C_6H_{12}O_6$), you need 12 water molecules and 6 of carbon dioxide. I love it when physicists try to do biology.
Apr
19
comment Comparative Genomics
Relevant discussion on orthologs vs paralogs: What is the difference between orthologs, paralogs and homologs?
Apr
17
comment Organisms that contain rare chemical elements
In that case, please edit your question to reflect what you're currently asking. Most of the elements you mention will be present in, basically, most organisms. Which ones are you asking about? Oh, and this article suggests that tin is an essential nutrient in humans as well. Please edit and narrow the question down to something specific that we can answer.
Apr
17
comment Organisms that contain rare chemical elements
Selenium is an essential trace nutrient, what makes you think humans don't have it? For example, we have ~22 (or 25, depending on how you count them) selenoproteins, each of which contains at least one selenocysteine amino acid which is a cysteine analog with Selenium in the place of sulfur. In fact, I would be surprised if any of these elements is not present (at least in trace amounts) in the human body. Do you have any references that support the absence of one of these?