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comment How do trees use Adhesion and Cohesion to move water against gravity?
Its important to add that the driving force for the actual water movement is the gradient in water potential in the system (atmosphere is dry, while the mesophyll of the leaf is wet). The plant expends no energy to move the water.
comment Do all plants photosynthesize with equal efficiency?
Great reference that I wish I had seen before posting. If I'm reading it right, the 4.6 and 6% figures are theoretical. They give the highest observed efficiencies as 3.4 and 4.3% (C3 and C4 respectively), so values in the WP article are very high.
comment Can I estimate leaf temperature from air temperature? What other information would be required?
Leaf temperature is a function of air temp, water vapor pressure deficit, net radiation, stomatal conductance, and boundary layer conductance, among other things. Most of these change significantly within the course of a day (or more often), and consequently, so will the offset between leaf and air temp. There are some energy balance models that would be appropriate for estimating this offset (which I'll dig up if I get a chance).
comment How do trees manage to grow equally in all directions?
Giberellic acid is another plant hormone that can induces plant cell growth or elongation, among many other functions.
comment How do trees manage to grow equally in all directions?
Lots of questions are nested here - tree growth and its regulation, reaction wood, heliotropism - might be good to focus it
comment What is the difference between “dikaryotic” and “heterokaryotic” states in the sexual lifecyles of fungi?
Good answer, thanks - one other thing I found is that a dikaryon may then divide, with each nucleus being replicated once per division, to form dikaryotic hyphae. In Basidiomycota, the entire basidiocarp (mushroom) is formed from these dikaryotic hyphae.
comment Why do plants' leaves become enlarged in low light areas?
Also, plants that adapted to a "shady" ecological niche are competing less for access to direct sunlight, and therefore have less need to invest in height or the larger stem this requires.