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How does myopia develop, exactly?

Recently I was reading about myopia and I understood a few basic facts about it:

  1. Its initial cause is a constant spasm in the ciliary muscle.

  2. To do less work, the eyeball elongates a tiny bit.

  3. During adolescence, because of the growth of the body, the eyeball elongates accordingly even more (i.e. the myopia is progressing).

I don't really understand the exact mechanism responsible for the transition from 1 to 2. Is the ciliary muscle capable of elongating the eyeball on its own, or is there some other relationship to another part of the eye?

It's weird how myopia is so common these days and I wasn't able to find the precise mechanism behind it.