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Why are small land vertebrates less common than small invertebrates?

There are some very small vertebrate species. The dwarf chameleon is a very cute example. But why are vertebrates on that scale so uncommon compared to invertebrates such as arthropods? Warm blooded ...
Haley Weiss's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
80 views

How many fruit flies from a single banana, and what is the bottleneck?

Suppose I start breeding a fruit fly population on a single rotting overripe banana which weights 100g, in an isolated container. The fruit flies don't have access to anything else, though ventilation ...
Łukasz Grabowski's user avatar
-3 votes
0 answers
35 views

What's the smallest fruit in the world?

What's the smallest fruit in the world? Seriously, I have been Googling a lot, no luck. And is it a fleshy fruit or a dry fruit? And what type of fruit (e.g. drupe, berry)? And it is treated as both a ...
thesmartwaterbear's user avatar
-2 votes
0 answers
22 views

How long does blood stay bright red after being exposed to the air?

I am having a hard time finding the answer to this question. There should be a general time like x-minutes. Does it matter if it is in the sunlight? Maybe even an approximate time like between x-...
DONNELLY BURNS's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
11 views

Rough estimation of stroke volume

I wanted to know if you could use PWV in combination with PP to estimate SV (pulse wave velocity, pulse pressure and stroke volume). My understanding is, the higher the arterial stiffness that is, the ...
gabriel's user avatar
  • 59
0 votes
1 answer
13 views

Export AlphaFold Server file and visualize on PyMol

I am currently working with AlphaFold Server, which is Google DeepMind's public access release of AlphaFold3, a model for biomolecule structure prediction. I am using it in order to predict protein-...
smart's user avatar
  • 1
0 votes
0 answers
22 views

Length of base-pairing required in Argonautes

I've been reading a lot about Argonautes and its recognition mechanism and how there are some differences on how they match the target RNA. I know that the (mi)RNA guides are quite longer than what is ...
Alicia Cantero's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
23 views

Have the effects of hydroalcoholic gel on mosquitos have been studied?

It is well known that alcohol attracts mosquitoes [1] and the impact of alcohol in the blood sucked by these insects is very low on their nervous system: But in reality, insects can be remarkably ...
mountrix's user avatar
  • 101
1 vote
1 answer
36 views

What is this worm like creature

What is it? It moves like a worm. The things on the body are some seeds. It is found in Germany near Düsseldorf. It is 12:30 on 19.07.2024 It is 1cm long and 0.2 cm wide and high The source is the ...
Bastian Müller's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
25 views

Where does free ammonium in peripheral tissues come from if oxidative deamination occurs in the liver?

I have a misunderstanding regarding how some claims about amino acids catabolism make sense together. Maybe one of the claims is incorrect by itself so I'd be happy to be corrected. Here is what I don'...
Yuval Houri's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
78 views

Post-Translational Modification in insulin production

When searching "How is insulin produced commercially" on Google, most results simply say something along the lines of "The insulin gene is inserted into a bacteria, which then express ...
user73910's user avatar
  • 439
2 votes
1 answer
197 views

How do temperature sensory neurons differentiate different temperatures

There are both cold and hot receptors of temperature which use TRP ion channels. When a certain temperature is achieved one of the TRP channel is opened and Ca2+ ions enter the first order neuron, My ...
NikoMolecule's user avatar
-1 votes
0 answers
36 views

What are these?

theses are swarming my truck in area southwest of meeker co
Sean Brogdon's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
56 views

A question on the spike-train autocorrelation function: Do we ignore the integration where the integrand is not defined?

In Dayan and Abbott's Theoretical Neuroscience book, they defined the spike-train autocorrelation function in section 1.4 as $$ Q_{\rho\rho}(\tau)=\frac 1T \int_{0}^{T} \langle(\rho(t)-\langle r\...
Asigan's user avatar
  • 133
4 votes
0 answers
44 views

What kind of very tiny bugs are these? Please help to identify! [duplicate]

The are very very tiny, finding number of them in my bathroom and bedroom, Difficult to see on non- white surface. Difficult to click pictures, This is best I can come up with. Location - MD, USA
Sam S's user avatar
  • 41
-2 votes
0 answers
30 views

What insect egg is this. Smaller than the tip of a qtip

Egg with grey and black markings found in my cup a few minutes ago. I have tried looking it up and using ai image find stuff.
Caleb Watson's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
29 views

Locating a hornet nest

Say you are noticing relatively many hornets since 2 weeks or so, showing up at the windows of a flat you are living in. The frequency of hornets constantly probing the windows is relatively high. ...
maxschlepzig's user avatar
-4 votes
0 answers
41 views

How does fat produce more energy than glucose while the amount of energy released by glucose is more than that of fat?

According to my book Concise Biology Revised edition of Selina Publication for Class IX, "1 mole of glucose releases 686 kilocalories of energy". It's also mentioned there that " They ...
Kakiaririki's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
78 views

What does it mean to say that egg derived vaccines are "cheap but slow to produce"?

A nature review of bird flu says: currently available vaccines rely on inactivated strains of viruses grown in chicken eggs, which are cheap, but slow, to produce. Researchers are developing vaccines ...
User65535's user avatar
  • 240
-1 votes
0 answers
35 views

Is this baby bed bugs or something else? [closed]

These are so tiny and I haven’t seen any adult bed bugs. I have searched and searched for signs. I’m only getting these small little bugs in my traps. Pretty long and skinny.
Kati Vanorder's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
76 views

In a leaf, how does the water get out of the xylem?

In every textbooks, one can read that the xylem transports water and nutriments up to the leaves while the phloem transports the sap down to each parts of the tree, and that both the xylem and phloem ...
Shaktyai's user avatar
  • 239
0 votes
0 answers
30 views

Has any research linked gestational period and exhibited mourning behavior? If so, how?

While reading the National Geographic Answer Book (2016ce), I was reminded elephants have a gestation period of a little less than two years. Mourning behaviors for these creatures may include "...
Matthew Michel's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
26 views

How to store chlorella for a long time at room temperature?

Is it possible to store chlorella for a long time (6 months) at room temperature? I was thinking about desiccation and looked for some studies on it, but I only found this study (https://www....
Saturn V's user avatar
  • 121
2 votes
1 answer
104 views

Can cellar spiders survive long immersion in water?

One morning i got into my tub to take a shower, i didnt check it this time and didnt notice a cellar spider that was in it (its pretty common for them to be in there i take them out all the time) and ...
Niksonrex's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
25 views

Is Protista a kingdom just for unicellular eukaryotes that couldn't be classified under any other kingdom? [duplicate]

Is Kingdom Protista merely a "catch-all" classification for unicellular eukaryotes that do not belong to the kingdoms of Animalia, Plantae, or Fungi? Or does it possess specific criteria ...
JAYANT SINGH GBPP's user avatar
-1 votes
0 answers
37 views

Improving reading research paper figures [closed]

I want to improve making interpretations on paper figures ( Western blot figures, PCA plot, bar graph, ... anything). I mean for example pointing out to specific increases between control and some ...
Standard cake's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
39 views

Doubt regarding the existence of a life form unrelated to all the other life forms [duplicate]

Primitive life on earth began from a mixture of complex organic compounds which were formed millions of years ago which evolved and gave rise to all the current species. So is it possible that another ...
sab's user avatar
  • 1
2 votes
2 answers
34 views

Has anyone tried site-directed mutagenesis aimed at deleting >10 amino acids of a protein using overlapping primers?

I am trying to use primer pairs with overlapping and non-overlapping regions to create deletions within a protein sequence (https://bmcbiotechnol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6750-8-91). I ...
Malka D'Malke's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
47 views

What kind of bug it is?

I saw dozens of this bug in my kitchen. They are smaller than one millimeter and they crawl and jump. Can someone help me please. Thanks
mohammad noresi's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
24 views

What is the probability distribution of a neutral mutation's allele frequency after k-generations? (in asexually reproducing organisms)

I've had trouble finding info on how to model this problem, so figured I'd ask it here. I'm trying to figure out what the probability distribution is of the frequency of a mutation in a population ...
mrz123456's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
13 views

Why is a Na-K pump necessary if the neural membrane is impermeable to Na+ ions during the resting phase? [duplicate]

If the neural membrane is impermeable to Na+ ions during the resting phase, why does it require a Na-K pump to expel sodium ions? What causes the accumulation of Na+ ions inside the membrane if it is ...
JAYANT SINGH GBPP's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
46 views

How do I carry out an in silico PCR on a bacterial genome (target:16S rRNA)? Unable to find any bacterial genome on UCSC Genome Browser in silico PCR

I could not find any bacterial species in the drop-down list for genomes in https://genome.ucsc.edu/cgi-bin/hgPcr Any kind of help would be appreciated. Other links for in silico PCR did not really ...
Rahul Dhargalkar's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
46 views

Inexpensive and quick hematology tests

I was interested in measuring hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and dna damage, but most methods require expensive equipment or take to long to perform. I though about using 4ml ...
gabriel's user avatar
  • 59
0 votes
0 answers
21 views

What backbone to use for Helper dependent adenovirus (HDAd)

I have been trying to design a plasmid for a helper dependent adenovirus but while looking i wasn't able to see a backbone specifically for HDAds so I was wondering if a general adenovirus backbone ...
Gpgabriel25's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
25 views

Compare cell types human iPCS lines and human prefrontal cortex

I'm a bioinformatician with less knowledge in biology. I'm working with human brain cells. I have 2 different sequencing datasets. One was derived from human iPCS lines, and another was obtained from ...
Tien's user avatar
  • 11
2 votes
0 answers
26 views

How do Ocean Ecosystems support high trophic level predators?

Ocean Ecosystems have carnivores that can exclusively hunt other carnivores. We know that Otodus Megalodon occupied such a high tropic level that it ate animals that would've eaten today's orcas. In ...
New_Archaeoceti_325's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
16 views

How to model the relationship between environments based on environmental covariates in a genomic prediction context

I have a dataset with different wheat lines in multiple environments. For each line various traits are measured (e.g. grain yield). I am trying to set up various genomic prediction models (linear ...
set_user123's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
22 views

Is it possible to improve metabolic rate through quorum sensing?

I am building a microbial fuel cell unit using mint plant and soil microbes. My goal is to power a LED light using the electricity but the electrify that microbes are so little so I am thinking of ...
jia's user avatar
  • 1
0 votes
0 answers
15 views

Does sectioning of sporangia of ferns kill the spores inside the sporangia?

In certain religions like Jainism, killing, or eating of seeds or unicellular microorganisms is banned. Does sectioning of sporangia kill all the spores? And by the way do the spores form a part of ...
Sameer Athreya's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
17 views

How do I get oxygen to my tree roots that are coming out of the ground? [migrated]

Many tree roots above the ground surface are steadily destroying our mowing equipment. Research has shown that the roots are seeking oxygen. Who knew that an oxygen producing organism needs oxygen ...
Brian Pounders's user avatar
15 votes
1 answer
2k views

Does the Ogre-Faced Spider regenerate part of its eyes daily?

Deinopis Spinosa A species of the Deinopidae family, characterized by long thin (elegant) legs and the use of them to hold and thrust a net towards their prey. These spiders are visibly remarkable for ...
Jiminy Cricket.'s user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
96 views

Why instects aren't blinded by Sun?

Insects have compound eyes with very wide field of view, but when they're in sunlight some of ommatidium would be directly facing the Sun. Doesn't that damage photoreceptors?
Graphenjoyer's user avatar
-3 votes
0 answers
33 views

Why is the assimilation of single carbon sources exclusively, rather than other elements, used for phenotypic identification of bacteria?

Background Single element source assimilation testing: determines if an organism can grow using a single source of the specific element being tested. These tests constitute many of the tests in the ...
Freezing Soul's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
67 views

What is this bug on wood and paper?

I live in a Mediterranean climate and I often find these bugs in wooden furniture and sometimes around books. I would like to find the name and a solution to exterminate them. The bug is black looks ...
emonigma's user avatar
  • 151
-2 votes
1 answer
79 views

How can your cells survive your whole life without telomerase [closed]

I know about the end replication problem. I've heard that cancer cells need them to survive such quick divisions. But I don't understand how normal cells don't need them. Despite the fact that they ...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
67 views

What insect is this in photo? 1.5" size

What insect is this in photo? Saw this in outdoor table and wonder if it can bite and if it has venom. The size is about 1.5 inches and located in the Philippines.
Jtl's user avatar
  • 101
-1 votes
0 answers
13 views

How to ensure correct and appropriate gene expression for inserted transgenes?

I know little about genetic engineering . But older (Pre CRISPR) gene therapy involved using a vector to insert a foreign gene (from another species) and its promoter sequence into the target species. ...
Sanjay Biswas's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
306 views

Spider identification?

enter image description here Can someone help me identify this spider? I've never seen one like this. I have brown widows and brown recluses in my yard, along with different types of orb weavers, but ...
Mari Hue's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
70 views

Why does acidosis cause cells to remove hydrogen ions using the proton/potassium ion pump rather than exchange with another cation?

Many mammalian cells respond to acidosis by transferring hydrogen ions to the blood using a proton/potassium ion pump. Why is this system employed rather than one involving another cation such as ...
Vat's user avatar
  • 43
0 votes
0 answers
122 views

Wood-eating bug in Germany

This bug was found in an old church in Southern Germany. Apparently it was damaging/eating wood. A local woodworker could not identify the bug and speculated that it was some foreign species. ...
Christoph's user avatar
  • 101

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