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10 views

Carbondioxide in respiration

So glucose gets more used up in aerobic right? that should produce less co2 than anaerobic? q: Which produces more co2, aerobic or anaerobic respiration?
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0answers
10 views

Hello, I have a question realated to DNA vaccine!

I am going to do DNA vaccine in fish by using plasmid pcDNA3.1(+) with an bacterial antigen, Unfortunately, my target gene has a Kozak sequence in the middle region of sequence, So, my question is can ...
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0answers
12 views

What are proliferating, but “normal” (non-cancer, non stem) cells of the human (mouse)?

What are proliferating, but "normal" (not cancer, not stem, not differentiating) cells of the human (mouse) ? Typically after differentiation process finished the cells stop proliferation. ...
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0answers
12 views

How megalodon create so much bite force?

megalodon is Apex predator and it has highest bite force of 40,000 psi and I found it difficult how it bite with so much force that shatter rocks ,metals and how it skull is structurally arranged to ...
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0answers
18 views

De Novo Assembly from Oligos

I am trying to assemble a pseudo-chromosome from a few thousand 130bp oligos with 30bp of overlap. I've aligned all of my reads to their reference and I have at least 20X coverage for each oligo. I've ...
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0answers
8 views

Name of and neurological origination of urination inhibition reflex due to signaling from rectum?

Serious question. When urinating from a standing position the following happens occasionally: urination suddenly stops mid-stream there's a sudden awareness of "somebody knocking at the back ...
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1answer
24 views

Is the Orca a Whale?

I've read that "all dolphins are whales". I've also read that "the killer whale (orca) is a type of dolphin" and that "orcas are not whales, they're dolphins." But if the ...
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0answers
11 views

What are main geographic and demographic factors increase/decrease spread of Covid19?

I would be interested in knowing what are main demographic and geographic factors that could increase/decrease spread of Covid19. For example, study of Kadi & Khelfaoui (2020) unsurprisingly show ...
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2answers
36 views

Is there a difference between human neuron cells compared to those of other animals?

Thanks for looking. Firstly, I am nowhere near biologist, just a student, so my apologies if this isn't a "good" question. Background: So I was searching about intelligence, brains and ...
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1answer
16 views

Can Ni-NTA-Atto Conjugates bind to single His-tag

Can I label a protein with a single His-tag with Ni-NTA-Atto conjugates? Papers generally use this technic to label 6His-tag.
2
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1answer
29 views

Is there a specific English term for this vessel for microbial sampling?

In Russian, such a container (see pictures) for microbial sampling is called бакпечатка (bakpechatka), as I learned just now. I've no idea about the etimology of the Russian term. Probably "bak&...
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0answers
20 views

Why bananas exposed in UVC light turn brown afterwards?

We have this research, where we test if our germicidal disinfection box is working and is functional by doing the banana test, where we expose the green banana to UVC and if the exposed peel turns ...
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26 views

How do we know genes that are considered endogenous retroviruses are actually endogenous retroviruses and not just ordinary genes?

What makes these genes different as to be classed as an endogenous retrovirus? I've read the entirity of Wikipedia on retroviruses and didn't find the answer. I think it could be that these genes are ...
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0answers
13 views

Do E. coli change color (from white/grey to yellow) when they grow older?

In my experiment, I had white colonies initially and they turned yellow. So I thought it´s natural that mature E. coli colonies are yellow and young are white. But it could be that I had two types of ...
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2answers
45 views

Where do garbage flies come from?

I want to know the origin of those very small insects/flies which we see over kitchen garbage or when some surface is wet for some time. Where do they come from? Who actually reproduce them?
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0answers
20 views

genome wide identification of certain protein?

I'm trying to identify a set of enzymes (NALAAs) in a given bacterium, for which I have the WGS info. How do I shortlist candidate enzymes from my putative proteome? I tried using ScanProsite to ...
2
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1answer
47 views

Were the Francevillian biota real?

The announced discovery of macrofossils suggestive of large multicellular organisms 2.1 Ga ago is now over ten years old. Is there by now a scientific consensus whether these constitute real fossils ...
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0answers
42 views

I had an encounter with a cougar (mountain lion). What does the recurrence time look like?

I had an encounter with a cougar recently. I was walking down a muddy old forest service road when approximately 15-20 meters behind me a deer burst out of the brush with a cougar chasing it close ...
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0answers
35 views

What do you call someone that has this sleep pattern?

Gets up at 5 am, sleeps at 7 pm, wake up 3 hours later, sleep at 1 am, get up again at 5 am.
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1answer
57 views

Isolating colonies in a pure culture

I want to conduct antimicrobial susceptibility tests for which I've to culture bacteria first. Since I've bought KWIK-STIKs, (KWIK-STIK contains a single lyophilized microorganism which have to be ...
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1answer
34 views

What species of viper is this?

I think that the snake in the pictures here below is a viper. I found it on a hiking trail on a mountain in Bulgaria. Height was about 2000 meters and the weather wasn't warm as you might expect in a ...
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0answers
45 views

Epigenetic marks

I was lately researching epigenetics and the current research on age reversal. Because epigenetic processes are influenced by the environment and can vary over time, I wanted to know if all epigenetic ...
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2answers
69 views

Can insects be killed by intense visible light?

Some mosquitoes and flies were sitting on the white ceiling. I took a very powerful flashlight to try and daze and then vacuum them. When I put the flashlight's head against the ceiling (with a ...
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0answers
18 views

What is Frontier Medicine [closed]

What are the topics that I should write about while doing an investigatory project on Frontier Medicine and their scope in india
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1answer
990 views

Do mutations occur while growing virus for preparing inactivated viral vaccine?

The development of mutations in virus is reported to happen during replication, especially for an mRNA type virus like SARS-COV-2 Viruses that encode their genome in RNA, such as SARS-CoV-2, HIV and ...
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0answers
24 views

Have orcas ever been observed to be eaten by another species?

Orcas are well known to prey on just about everything that lives in the ocean, even including great white sharks. Yet in a lot of cases I know that the food chain is not unidirectional, there are many ...
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1answer
35 views

Fluorescent purple flowers?

Do some flowers fluoresce? Some deep purple Lobelias and larkspurs seem to glow and confuse my eyes in sunlight. It reminds me of those blue LED Christmas lights (they come in strings with other ...
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1answer
28 views

Which trophic level has the highest population in a food chain?

The basic trophic levels in any food chain are the producers, the consumers and the decomposers. Most of the websites I've searched say they are the decomposers. But shouldn't it be the producers? In ...
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0answers
33 views

NCBI Query all expressions of a gene in a specific series

Is there an eficient way to query the expression of some gene in all the entries of a series? What I'm doing at the moment is to download all series file, and then open each one... example: https://...
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0answers
49 views

Why is the pyramid of numbers inverted for an ecosystem dominated by trees?

I was trying to answer the following question: In an ecosystem dominated by trees, the pyramid of numbers is _______ When searched on Google, it gives me the answer as inverted. I don't quite get ...
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1answer
45 views

Does SARS-COV-2 produce toxins?

I wonder whether toxins are produced only by bacteria and fungi and not by viruses. Looking at the paper below, I read that several toxic proteins are produced by SARS-COV-2. Can these proteins be ...
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1answer
29 views

Need help identifying spider

I have been trying to identity this spider and have found nothing similar. This is the second I have found, this being the smaller at about 2cm. I want to know what kind of spider this is and if it is ...
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0answers
18 views

How to grow a geotrichum candidum culture?

I'm not a biologist, but I am an amateur cheesemaker and what makes my hobby expensive is purchasing dehydrated Geotrichum Candidum, with which I inoculate raw milk. I would like to learn how to grow ...
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0answers
39 views

How long will the spike protein from mRNA stay in the body?

Somewhat related to this question,how long will spike proteins produced as a result of mRNA covid 19 vaccines (Pfizer, moderna) stay in the body? How is it expected to be in comparison with adenovirus ...
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0answers
47 views

How is the possibility of beneficial mutations ensured in the genome?

To ensure natural selection and variability, the genome must have a structure in which the occurrence of beneficial mutations has a high enough probability. But how is this ensured? The space of ...
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1answer
26 views

Gene regulation and epigenetics in specialized cells

Gene regulation is aided by epigenetics. Epigenetics determines which genes are turned off and which are switched on, and it varies throughout our lifetimes. Is it feasible that epigenetic ...
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0answers
29 views

If u are born with missing dna in ur leg what is that called? [closed]

If a child is Missing DNA at birth and is not able to speak or walk, what is that called?
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0answers
32 views

Is there any reliable data about the correlation between the size of a species and number of individuals that belong to it?

I'm curious to know if such a collection of data exists, so I could visualize it with a graph, and see how humans compare to other spieces of similar size.
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0answers
26 views

Why does more melanin means harder vitamin D production if melanocytes lie deeper in the skin than keratinocytes?

From my Googling, I understand that keratinocytes are primarily responsible for generating vitamin D from UV rays, and melanocytes are for producing melanin to block UV rays. However in lots of skin ...
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1answer
50 views

What would be the consistency of a tangible amount of bacteria or viruses? [closed]

As in the title, I was wondering how would feel an amount of one type of bacteria or virus, big enough to have a tangible size of the sample. What color, state (liquid, solid), textures, smell ecc. of ...
2
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1answer
80 views

Is there a difference in flying technique or anatomy between birds and bats which means bats don't need a large sternum?

I know that birds have a large sternum in order to anchor the wing muscles. Bats also have wings, but don't have the same large sternum. Is there a difference in either flying technique or anatomy ...
1
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1answer
40 views

higher-order evolutionary adaptations

Most adaptations are what I'd call first-order. Cats evolve better eyesight; redwoods evolve to grow taller; male cardinals evolve attractive bright feathers. All of these changes were selected for ...
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0answers
12 views

CO2 injection into a Planted Aquarium - detriment to Fish? [migrated]

From the start, thank you for your time and consideration. Whilst planning a planted aquarium setup that would include CO2 injection, I stumbled across an article about possible behavioral ...
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0answers
23 views

Will the usage of Exo-Skeleton Gear actually weaken the human body over time? [closed]

As we all know, Exo Skeletons as they exist now are just a series of Force multiplying apparatuses working together, also the human body changes to accommodate environment specific factors in order to ...
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0answers
35 views

How does auxin-inducible degron technology make it possible to observe an immediate phenotype?

I am having trouble understanding this paper, which says Protein knockdown using the auxin-inducible degron (AID) technology is useful to study protein function in living cells because it induces ...
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0answers
19 views

Assoc. between drug-induced perturbations and disease processes [closed]

I'm trying to understand the main idea of this paper: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21330-0 A news link: https://www.azorobotics.com/News.aspx?newsID=12055 As far as I understand, they have the ...
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2answers
88 views

What book teaches you about endogenous retroviruses [closed]

I'm interest in ERVs as evidence for evolution and want to learn more about them.
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0answers
39 views

Why do ants swarm near in sidewalk crevices?

I've noticed ants swarming near crevices in sidewalks (see image). This seems to be different from how they swarm around food sources. Are they just swarming spontaneously through some feedback ...
3
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1answer
43 views

Polymerase Cycle Assembly (PCA) is not working (Only primrs in EF Gel)

Helllo All 👋! I am working trying to assemble dsDNA fragments (for further golden gate domestication) via polymerase cycle assembly (PCA). After designing the required oligonucleotides with overlap ...
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0answers
34 views

What would happen if an organism consumed something almost the same as it's usual food source but with the molecules inverted? [closed]

Let's say an organism consumes something almost the same as it's usual food source, but with the molecules inverted, and the amount it consumes is not enough to stop it from consuming enough of it's ...

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