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What if you started living upside down? [closed]

Imagine you lived upside down: suspended from the ceiling feet up, head down, still enabling you to performr all your daily activities like eat, exercise, sleep, etc. What would be the repercussions ...
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0 votes
0 answers
6 views

In traditional plant cloning, why do we require two different vectors (plasmids)?

So I was recently taught cloning in plants and I came to wonder what is the need to first put the gene of interest in the entry vector plasmid and then the final vector plasmid before finally ...
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0 answers
6 views

What are the advantage and disadvantage of using LB or TB for standard protein expression?

I've been searching around about when someone would use luria broth over terrific broth. But it seems that terrific broth is just better? Yet people still use LB, so I must be missing something.
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-2 votes
0 answers
21 views

Protein domain for reverse translation

Disclaimer I'm just starting in synthetic biology and ultimately want to make a 'programmable' cell for quickly synthesizing small quantities of long genetic sequences and proteins on demand. Please ...
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3 votes
2 answers
178 views

How are DNA virus cladograms actually calculated in practice? Is the procedure different for RNA viruses? Are these processes somewhat subjective?

The May 24, 2022 Bloomberg opinion piece Monkeypox Isn’t Looking Like a Covid-Sized Threat; It’s still early, but contact-tracing efforts and analysis of the virus’s genome offer hope that this ...
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4 votes
0 answers
28 views

Are there any cases where broadening the tissue tropism decreases the virulence of viruses?

Broadening the tissue tropism often increases the virulence. For example, poliovirus normally replicates in the guts and causes minor febrile illnesses. In rare cases (1%) the virus invades neurons ...
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  • 173
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0 answers
31 views

Why DNA polymerases don't have helicase activity

RNA polymerases have intrinsic helicase ability, while DNA polymerases don't. I am curious why DNA polymerases evolved in such a way that they lack the ability to unwind DNA.
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-4 votes
0 answers
21 views

Why does the cell membrane need hydrophilic heads?

I was just learning about the phospholipid bilayer and it appears that the hydrophobic tails are basically the "impenetrable" part; as in non-polar molecules are allowed in because they ...
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-1 votes
0 answers
22 views

If a chemical passes through the blood-brain barrier does that mean it will pass through the membranes of most cells?

For instance, there is a drug that I heard will pass through the blood brain barrier and I wanted to know if I could infer from this that it would readily enter the cytoplasm of cells elsewhere in the ...
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3 votes
0 answers
36 views

Is CRISPR mediated RNA editing less specific and less efficient than DNA editing?

According to this diagram, the high efficiency and the high specificity of CRISPR lies in its reversible binding with the target DNA. The Cas protein unzips the target DNA and have the gRNA to base ...
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  • 173
4 votes
1 answer
351 views

Ecology of the environment for the ruffed grouse

I live in a coastal New England town and while reading a local history I noticed frequent mention of the "partridge" as being a commonplace bird in the area. Now, however, this bird which is ...
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-2 votes
0 answers
41 views

Why isn’t protein digestible by those who have a damaged liver? And why is it vomited out?

We have been presented with theories and facts that the digestion of carbohydrates begins from the mouth itself, the saliva starts breaking it down as it comes in contact with it, and that protein and ...
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-1 votes
0 answers
17 views

How does the brain activate retinal cones in darkness?

The activation of retinal cones by light is how vision is formed; yet there are other methods, such as mechanical one, for activating light, such as pressure photopsia/phosphenes. This occurs when ...
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-2 votes
0 answers
22 views

Whatever this is has taken host in me following 10 year residence in a house w/ plumbing & water damage issues [closed]

Washington state coast, Gray's Harbor area. I don't know if it is some type of fungus, bacteria or parasite but it's destroyed my whole life. I really need help to identify. I am secreting in ...
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2 votes
0 answers
30 views

What is the heredity model of the following heredity tree?

I have the following heredity tree: and I need to decide which heredity model it fits the most, with the least number of assumptions, from the following models: autosome dominant autosome recessive ...
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  • 139
1 vote
0 answers
26 views

Poison of the Japanese Tree Frog

The Japanese Tree Frog (EN / JP) has a poison on its skin that can even make you loose your eyesight, if you touch your eyes, after touching. I found quite a couple of site stating that you must be ...
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  • 111
-1 votes
0 answers
23 views

Question about the process of elongation in translation

My understanding of elongation in translation is that amino acids are attached to codons of the MRNA. However, my confusion was about the origin of these amino acids - were they once part of DNA which ...
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  • 1
1 vote
0 answers
17 views

Is this a bedbug or something else?

Found it on my bedsheet close to my pillow. My boyfriend had a couple of welts a few weeks ago on his chest, but we can’t seem to find any other evidence on the mattress or around it.
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1 vote
0 answers
19 views

What are the implications for a small bird flying at high altitudes?

Are the aerodynamics of a bird flying at high altitude significantly different than a bird flying at low altitude? I would imagine a bird adapted for low, short flights (such as between bushes and ...
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  • 111
0 votes
0 answers
40 views

Why does the ecosystem of my house seem inverted?

My understanding of a typical ecosystem is that it is like a pyramid, with the mass of prey at the base and the apex predators at the peak. However, the arthropod ecosystem in my house seems to be the ...
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  • 515
-2 votes
0 answers
37 views

Can you give me the origin of the SEMs of camel RBCs shown in https://biology.stackexchange.com/questions/66898/picture-of-a-camels-red-blood-cells [closed]

in this earlier article Picture of a camel's red blood cells there are some use scanning electron micrographs of tubular shaped camel red blood cells. I am trying to trace the origin of these SEMs ...
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  • 1
1 vote
0 answers
19 views

Do *Ambystoma macrodactylum* predate on *ceuthophilinaens* like the one I observed?

I observed this Ambystoma macrodactylum within half of a meter of this Ceuthophilinaen under an old board. I can imagine salamanders eating cricket-like things, but this question is far outside my ...
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  • 970
2 votes
0 answers
17 views

Is there always a leaf(s) attatched to an auxillary bud?

I'm trying to create a 3D functional-structural plant model and I need to establish some axioms. Is it guaranteed or extremely likely that where auxiliary bud forms there's a leaf(s) attached? That's ...
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  • 21
5 votes
0 answers
24 views

Human biology - liver regeneration after laprascopic segmentectomy

I am trying to understand to what extent human patients can regenerate liver mass after laprascopic segmentectomy: what part of liver will be regenerated and how fully. My work with sources is not ...
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  • 151
6 votes
1 answer
480 views

Why does biomagnification of mercury occur more in large fish?

I love tuna so this question has been bugging me senselessly. I am aware that larger fish tend to have more mercury concentration in their flesh than their prey, however, I don't understand how this ...
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4 votes
0 answers
21 views

What is the median concentration of spike antigen in COVID positive patients?

I am searching for the plasma spike concentration in COVID patients. The closest possible reference I found claims that spike was only detectable in 5 of 64 COVID-19 positive patients. However, their ...
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  • 141
-1 votes
0 answers
25 views

Preferred order when combining directional terms

Is there any preferred order when combining directional terms? For example, if I say ear is superolateral to the mouth, can I instead say that ear is laterosuperior to the mouth? Is one correct while ...
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2 votes
1 answer
66 views

Many viruses use pressure to pump viral DNA into host cells. Does that mean these viruses have a narrow acceptance of the genome size?

DNA viruses like bacteriophages and herpes viruses have rigid capsids. The viral DNA is densely packed inside, and the internal pressure is 1~2 orders of magnitude higher than the atmospheric pressure....
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  • 173
1 vote
0 answers
76 views

Should soundscape ecology be a component of STEM education? [closed]

I'd like to see soundscape ecology be included in STEM education. I realize there is so much to teach and so little time, but think that primary and secondary students would be highly motivated and ...
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-4 votes
1 answer
55 views

Could a bearded woman ever become pregnant?

I am referring to woman who are facing Hirsutism. So I gone through Hirsutism, there is no mention of pregnancy. So could a bearded woman ever become pregnant ?
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1 vote
0 answers
25 views

Photolysis of water

Photolysis of water releases $\text{O}_2$, $\text{H}^+$ ions and $\text{e}^-$. $\text{Mn}$ in the $\text{O}_2$ evolving complex also produces $\text{e}^-$. What provides $\text{e}^-$ to P680:$\text{Mn}...
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11 votes
1 answer
983 views

How does a (stem) cell keep track of its own 'specialization'?

If I understand correctly, as stem cells divide, they become more and more specialized. The very first (fertilized) cell still can divide into every other cell in the body, but as they divide further, ...
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0 votes
0 answers
36 views

Why do bacteria denitrify?

Denitrification is the microbial respiration in anoxic condition. If the process is complete we have : $$2 \text{NO}_3^{-} + 10 \text{e}^{-} +12\text{H}^+ \rightarrow \text{N}_2 + 6 \text{H}_2\text{O}$...
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2 votes
1 answer
87 views

How does non-cell autonomous work - how can a mutant cell make other non-mutant cells exhibit a mutant phenotype?

I am reading a journal paper, and I have coming across the following statement: Furthermore, although late-born neurons that take up exogenous Dcc fail to settle in the superficial layer of the ...
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  • 1,549
-3 votes
0 answers
27 views

Why doesn't Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation work on me? [closed]

I build a device for Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation at 10,5V and limited it to 3,5ma(I tested this on load and on a short cirquit to make sure it stayed at 3,5ma. normally such devices go from around ...
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  • 1
-3 votes
0 answers
45 views

Does intestine linings gets damage if humans swallow sharp things like fish bones? [closed]

Does intestine linings gets damage if humans swallow sharp things like fish bones ?
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3 votes
1 answer
762 views

What is the name of this species of bird?

I've enjoyed watching this pair of birds build a nest in my patio light. One bird now appears to be in residence, and the red bird seems to come and go. I think they might be mates? These photos ...
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0 votes
0 answers
21 views

Can I remove sample outliers using standard deviation? [migrated]

I am looking to find find clinical and other measurements to predict a blood metabolite with Elastic-Net Regression models. Can I remove samples with values greater than 1.96 SD from the mean as ...
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  • 13
1 vote
0 answers
40 views

Order of iNaturalist taxon levels

Purpose I want to take a collection of iNaturalist observations and build a tree diagram of the taxonomic levels that occur in that sample. Background Most of us have seen diagrams like this or like ...
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  • 970
3 votes
1 answer
133 views

How do we know DNA contains all the information necessary to build an organism?

I have always assumed that DNA contains all information necessary to generate an organism, and this appears to be the current scientific consensus. According to Nature's Scitable page on "What is ...
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  • 273
0 votes
0 answers
21 views

Copy number deletion and high expression [duplicate]

I have a region that has significant CNV loss. But the expression for the genes in those regions is high compared to the expression found in the samples that don't have the regions lost. How can this ...
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  • 101
2 votes
1 answer
116 views

Are all genes capable of being switched on or off?

Are all genes capable of being switched on or off or only some genes? Are there some genes that permanently do not have the functionality that enables them to be switched on or off? Everything I have ...
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-2 votes
0 answers
69 views

Why are so many fruits spherically shaped?

Why are most of the fruits that we eat, i.e. apples, cherries, oranges etc, generally spherical?
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0 votes
0 answers
18 views

Cure for insomnia? [migrated]

I've come across this claim on the internet (at various places including a Netflix show The Principles of Pleasure - Episode 1): Masturbation could cure insomnia But I'm wary of these claims. Can ...
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0 votes
1 answer
26 views

Can the coding strand for an RNA act as the template for another?

Can the same strand of DNA act as a sense strand and an antisense strand at two different occasions of transcription and result in two different proteins?
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3 votes
0 answers
47 views
+50

T-Cell Receptor Receptor-Associated Immune Receptor Activation Motifs (ITAMs) Inconsistency

In reading the information associated with the cytoplasmic machinery of the T-Cell Receptor (TCR), the one tyrosine motif that is consistently mentioned is the receptor-associated immune receptor ...
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  • 598
-4 votes
0 answers
34 views

Fish performing Backstroke

Can Fish perform Backstroke similar to Humans? Can Fish swim only in forward motion and not reverse? Can there be any fish species which can perform backstroke? If No, Why?
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-1 votes
0 answers
39 views

Does extended lack of precipitation in the sea or ocean happen, and what would be its effects?

Drought on land is well studied and understood. Everyone knows: the soil dries out, water reserves dry out, the plants wither and die, crops fail, animals can't find food, farming and industry hits a ...
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  • 107
3 votes
0 answers
45 views

Why are telomeres needed to allow DNA replication at the ends of linear chromosomes?

I’m reading Molecular Biology of the Cell by Alberts et. Al and at one point the authors mention the following: We saw earlier that synthesis of the lagging strand at a replication fork must occur ...
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4 votes
0 answers
70 views

How long does an Audiomoth acoustic logger record for?

I'm wanting to record bat echolocation calls using an Audiomoth recorder. However, I can't find out anywhere how long these recorders can record for on a full charge. What is the longest duration ...
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