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4 views

Does acuity of a re-mapped region of cortex depend on the need of the animal to resolve between two closely related stimuli?

From my informal research so far, I've learned that cortical magnification is evident in at least the visual cortex and the somatosensory cortex. My question is the following: If there were a ...
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0answers
6 views

ID Request: What is this frog? Eastern Long Island, NY USA mixed hardwood forest

Apologies for the potato quality photos, but can anyone ID this frog? My son found a few frogs living under a porch at my father's house, which is situated in a mixed hardwood forested area of eastern ...
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0answers
7 views

Shape difference between photoreceptor cells ( rods and cones)

Rods are relatively cylindrical and longer compared to cones which are conical and shorter in length. What is the reason for such structural differences between rods and cones? Also it is mentioned ...
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1answer
23 views

Are probabilities of mutations symmetric?

For the premise of this quiestion let's assume that there is an allele A and an allele B. The allele A has a probability P to mutate into the allele B in the given timeframe. Is it also true that the ...
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14 views

Can viruses be reintroduced to humans from ice sheets?

A comment on reddit mockingly say because the ice is melting away due to global warming, this new virus came out of the melted ice sheets It has 60+ upvotes and no one replied Is it possible for ...
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0answers
12 views

How is Elysia chlorotica classified as an animal capable of photosynthesis?

Elysia chlorotica is a kind of sea slug. Technically, it's an animal. However, it undergoes a process called kleptoplasty, which is the absorption of chloroplasts from algal prey cells which are then ...
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1answer
188 views

What type of white hard thing grows on lobster

I have no idea how to explain it. It looks like mini white volcanoes growing on a lobster shell. Is it bacteria or parasite?
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0answers
11 views

Do babies have a fight or flight response?

Do babies react in the same way as young children and adults in regards to the fight or flight response? If they do not respond in a similar way or don't have a fight or flight response at all then at ...
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1answer
21 views

What would happen if we place denatured DNA in acidic medium?

My teacher in one of the biology lecture told that DNA could be denatured at high temperatures or keeping it at alkaline ph And he further added that it could be renatured by keeping it at low ...
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0answers
10 views

Is there any organism on earth, within whose retina, the photoreceptor cells (rods and cones) are within the innermost Layer?

I have read (mostly from wikipedia and a couple of books) that the photoreceptor cells of the retina form the outermost layer. This instinctively feels weird. Are there any species of organisms with ...
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0answers
9 views

Why do we get tunnel vision during fight or flight response?

I have a question regarding tunnel vision during the fight or flight response. I believe that during fight or flight high levels of adrenaline are released which causes the pupils to dilate allowing ...
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0answers
10 views

What is a Protein contact map, and how do I read one?

Protein contact maps are symmetrical and look great, but how does one read one? 'Understanding contact patterns of protein structures from protein contact map and investigation of unique patterns in ...
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0answers
14 views

Coronavirus: Why does soap inactivate the virus on skin, but not on surfaces?

In a comment on "Stability of SARS-CoV-2 in different environmental conditions", published today in The Lancet Microbe, it is stated that household soap is highly effective on the skin. Not ...
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0answers
12 views

What prevents the translation of the negative strand of negative-sense viral genomic RNA?

Some RNA viruses contain negative-sense RNA. Then they use this negative-sense RNA to make positive-sense RNA that is then translated into protein. My question is what prevents the translational ...
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9 views

Function of amatoxins

There are a couple of papers and "lots" of anectodal evidence which imply that mushroom hunting does not have any adverse effects on the fungi, neither short nor long term. One of the ...
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0answers
8 views

Does bone resorption cause alkalosis?

The phosphate in hydroxyapatite Ca5(PO4)3(OH) is a strong base, PO4^3-, and the hydroxide is also a base, OH-. I was talking with a biologist the other day about if bone resorption (at a level that ...
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0answers
15 views

Why are Chromosome Territories important?

Chromosomes occupy discrete regions of the nucleus, referred to as 'Chromosome Territories'. This spatial organization is emerging as a crucial aspect of gene regulation and genome stability in health ...
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0answers
17 views

Arthropod identification request [duplicate]

I'm in Southern Germany and just captured this animal crawling along my wall at considerable speed, apparently hiding from the light. It looks like a entipede from afar (about two dozen legs), and ...
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0answers
17 views

Do Zebras pick on other innocent Zebras like Homo Sapiens in a wide spread manner?

Homo sapiens can be really mean spirited and utmost cruel. Are less intelligent Zebras similar to humans too? I mean do they pick on other innocent Zebras and abuse them in all possible ways like ...
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0answers
23 views

In primates, how are mitochondria passed to offspring?

In Humans, the mitochondria are passed, mainly, by the mother to the children. Is this the same for other primates? Does this also appear to other animals?
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1answer
40 views

Is there a metric for “evolutionary agility”?

By "evolutionary agility" I mean how fast an organism can adapt to changes in the environment. I’d imagine that a population with more offspring and a shorter time between generations would ...
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0answers
22 views

Insulin in type 1 diabetes [closed]

I cannot seem to find an explanation for the following scenario. If your body cells require no glucose then what does injected insulin do, why would a type 1 diabetic have low blood sugar if the ...
-2
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0answers
13 views

What was the condition that made it so damaging when one student threw a dodgeball at another student? [closed]

According to https://globalnews.ca/news/5707201/boy-10-charged-assault-dodgeball/#:~:text=A%20state%20prosecutor%20in%20Michigan,to%20come%20to%20his%20defence.&text=The%20ball%20allegedly%20hit%...
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1answer
331 views

Can a second mass extinction by microbes happen?

Science Daily reports that the mass extinction at the end of Permian period happened by the Methanosarcina archaea wiping out 90% of species: Methane-producing microbes may be responsible for the ...
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0answers
27 views

Did death evolve to prevent inbreeding [duplicate]

I want to know if death evolved to prevent inbreeding. Ie, if it prevents parents from mating with later offspring. That would explain a lot.
-1
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1answer
37 views

Can you still contract a disease after being vaccinated and be able to spread it?

I assume I know the answer to this already but wanted to confirm before I respond to someone that appears to be arguing that vaccines don't make you immune (they only stop your symptoms?) - but you ...
2
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1answer
34 views

Which amino acids can be phosphorylated?

Definitely serine, tyrosine, and threonine. What about aspartate and glutamate? I thought the O- on the carboxylic acid side group could be phosphorylated but am getting mixed responses to this. Any ...
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13 views

Expressing bacteriophage in mammalian cells

Is it possible to express bacteriophage in mammalian cells by codon optimization? Any relevant literature? thanks in advance.
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0answers
12 views

Why do we have both on and off bipolar cells?

I have a question regarding the reason behind the 2 bipolar cells. So, from my understanding we have both on and off bipolar cells and from the numerous diagrams I have seen, I find that most show a ...
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0answers
25 views

is it possible to create an mini earth [closed]

so i was thinking about this for a while now but i need a professional Biologist with this one, is it possible to create a mini earth about an half meter world containing all the resources that could ...
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0answers
15 views

Why does Cyan appear bluish rather than greenish, when the phototopic eye sensitivity is highest in green (and Cyan contains blue and green equally)?

Cyan contains blue and green equally. Phototopic eye sensitivity is highest in green. Why, then, does Cyan appear bluish to most of us, rather than greenish?
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0answers
24 views

Why do beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptors result in two completely different effects (though both use Gs pathway)?

$\beta_2$ adrenergic Receptors are $G_s$-coupled 7-TM proteins. Considering that $G_s$ , by activation increases $[\text{cAMP}]_\text{cytosol}$ which inhibits MLCK of smooth muscles (and causes ...
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2answers
63 views

Do identical twins have the same metabolism rate at birth?

Will monozygotic twins defecate at the same time if fed at the same time during the first weeks of life? They should have the same genetics (and epigenetics) since they are monozygotic and the same ...
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0answers
30 views

Has a beating cardiomyocyte organoid with 'chamber/s' been generated? if not, why?

Commonly artificial organs are generated though stem cell technology. E.g. IPSC-technology. Cardiomyocytes (Heart cells) spontaneously beat and have been used to create organoids. To further define ...
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0answers
20 views

high sugar levels and infection [closed]

My cat was recently diagnosed as diabetic. She does have high sugar levels, but has been treated for infections since I rescued her 3 months ago. Could the high levels be the result of the infection ...
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0answers
24 views

Staphylococcus (antibacterial soaps and Traditional Lathering soaps)

I have been working on a biology research assignment regarding the claim: Antibacterial soaps are superior to traditional lathering soaps in minimizing the transmission of disease I have made a ...
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0answers
10 views

Repartition of tendon sheaths in humans

As a medical student I have been taught that tendon sheaths are found predominantly in the wrists, hands and ankles. However, I learned recently that tenosynovitis often affect the biceps brachii. It ...
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2answers
22 views

Action potential attenuation in unmyelinated axons vs demyelinated axons

I learnt that action potentials travel much faster along myelinated axons, and when these axons are demyelinated the action potentials travel much slower and sometimes die out. Why do action ...
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0answers
10 views

How to construct a sgRNA library with multiple samples?

I was wondering if anyone has already experience with constructing sgRNA libraries. We are interested in doing a knock-out experiment (loss-of-function) with 5 different conditions. I have found this ...
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0answers
8 views

When assessing a threat, does the amygdala compare the stimulus to memories of the amygdala or the hippocampus?

Two excerpts from the one article. My understanding of this excerpt is that the amygdala is using its own memories: The amygdala learns how to respond to various stimuli based on it’s reference to ...
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0answers
12 views

Can the eye determine which type of defocus is presented to it?

I have a question regarding myopic and hyperopic defocus. My question is, is the eye able to determine which type of defocus is presented to it and if so what mechanisms allow it to distinguish ...
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1answer
49 views

Why don't moles repair their DNA?

Cells have mechanism to repair damaged DNA. So why don't the cells in moles (the spots), repair themselves and the moles dissappear?
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0answers
21 views

which of the two is the best method for presenting specimens in museum style?

A while back I had to preserve pieces of shrubs and trees then present them in a museum-style, for a course module at university. A friend of mine opted in sticking them to a white A3 page with PVA ...
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0answers
9 views

Functions of the layers that make up Bruch's Membrane

I have a question regarding Bruch's Membrane. Within Bruch's Membrane there are the following layers: Outer Basal Lamina Outer Collagenous Zone Elastic Zone Inner Collagenous Zone Inner Basal Lamina ...
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2answers
33 views

What are all the possible developmental stages an insect can be in?

I'm making an app which allows the user to report insect observations. Many bugs may exist in different forms throughout their life time. For example, a butterfly will exist as an egg, a catterpillar, ...
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0answers
13 views

Does the coast of California support a larger population of marine mammals than Maine?

Visiting the Maine and California coasts, I've noticed that it is much more common to see marine mammals from the coast in California, including seals, dolphins, and whales. I've been hypothesizing ...
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0answers
25 views

how do you argue the creation of bacterial cell controlled by a chemically synthesized genome

I want answer related to synthetic biology and how it relates to genetic engineering
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0answers
32 views

Identification of a red arachnida (?) (picture and video)

I found this in a greenhouse in Norway. It is a few millimeters in size, I could fit 5-6 of them on my thumbnail. It looks a lot like this one from Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
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0answers
14 views

Do we know what the earliest stages of integument like fur or feathers looked like?

From either fossil evidence or from developmental evidence, are there any models for what the earliest stages of the evolution of fur, feathers or similar structures like pycnofibres would have looked ...
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1answer
22 views

Why severely increased Ligand (eg Hormones) concentration downregulates the Receptor?

As an example continuous high blood level of GnRH in humans causes a suppression of LH and FSH. This is due to the fact that increased GnRH downregulates GnRH-Receptors . My question is how this is ...

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