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8 views

How is Vitamin D deficiency linked to multiple sclerosis?

Numbness and tingling in various parts of the body can be linked to the deficiency if vitamin D in one's diet. Also, multiple sclerosis has Vitamin D deficiency as one of its risk factors. How exactly ...
1
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0answers
8 views

the effect of aquatic photoautotrophs on CO2 concentration in the air

The CO2 concentration in the air is more strongly influenced by the northern hemisphere than the southern hemisphere. A given explanation is that the northern hemisphere contains more terrestrial ...
1
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0answers
18 views

Do you know what kind of bug this is?

I have tried to find a picture similar online, but can’t seem to find any. Does anyone know what kind of bug this is? It has been on a penstemon plant for about 3 days. It’s been on the same stem, ...
1
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0answers
24 views

Boost of Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine increasing Immune Response to Vector

I realize this is the part that everyone doesn’t want to talk about, and certainly have few reasons to publish, but I have been looking for published, or even pre-print, data that evaluates the ...
2
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0answers
16 views

Does ribonuclease processing of pre-crRNAs happen co-transcriptionally?

I understand CRISPR-mediated bacterial immunity to occur in the following simplified steps: A CRISPR array is transcribed from promoters in the leader sequence to yield a precursor CRISPR RNA (pre-...
0
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1answer
37 views

Can wasps see under moonlight?

It appears that the best time to attack a wasp nest is in the middle of the night. Their venom might terrorize us (my five-day old sting remains swollen and is starting to have red bumps in an area ...
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0answers
31 views

Why is placement important in recombinant plasmids?

Will some proteins be expressed more than the others? Are there any other reasons?
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2answers
44 views

Red and White Flower or purely Pink? Phenotype of a Flower Species with a Co-dominant Trait

As I understand it, co-dominance is when both genes in an allelomorphic pair produce both their effects equally on the organism in question whilst incomplete dominance applies to an instance where a ...
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0answers
12 views

How does the phosphorylation state of 4E-BPs affect translation of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transcripts?

A 2020 review paper about mTOR (ref. 1) says: because biomass accumulation demands vast reserves of energetic currency, mTORC1 enhances translation of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transcripts ...
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0answers
23 views

Does an N1-methyl-pseudouridine substitution in the first codon position (in mRNA) result in a different amino acid?

Because of the possibility of ‘wobble’ in the base-pair made between the third (5’) position of the anticodon and the third (3’) base of the the mRNA codon , single tRNAs with appropriate bases in ...
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2answers
26 views

How can you identify recessive mutations in a gene that has been disrupted by a chromosomal translocation?

I am reading a journal paper about a patient who has intellectual disability. The patient was found to have a balanced chromosomal translocation t(11;16)(q24.2;q24). This chromosomal translocation ...
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0answers
25 views

epitope vaccine design docking

in multi-epitope vaccine design, I found the in a paper author performed docking shown as the figure; I don't understand what HLA-DRB07:01 and HLA-A32:01 represents and why they are chosen(not other ...
1
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1answer
45 views

Why does the time to reach equilibrium across a membrane decrease with concentration?

We're learning about flux and Fick's law and there's one point I'm having trouble understanding. Assuming we have a higher concentration of a species on one side of a membrane, I understand that ...
2
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1answer
39 views

Are there any online resources for visualising on which band of a chromosome a particular gene is located?

I am studying some genes that are expressed in the brain. I use the online database UniProt to get information about the proteins encoded by the genes of interest. However, I would like to know on ...
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1answer
39 views

CCTV cameras in Microbiology (Pathology) Laboratories

Isn't it highly beneficial to have CCTV cameras installed in all Microbiology Labs in the COVID-19 times? As the COVID vaccines are already developed, the research & development carried further in ...
0
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0answers
39 views

Do bacteria select for "soap resistance"?

When people wash their hands with soap, this limits the spread of bacterial infections. That much, I am pretty convinced of. Duh. What I don't get is how this doesn't lead to evolutionary pressure on ...
4
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1answer
240 views

Are there any phenotypically visible examples of gene linkage in humans?

Are there any examples of two "visible" or "obvious" phenotypic traits in humans that are a priori unrelated, but which tend to be inherited together (i.e. their inheritance ...
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0answers
27 views

Unknown Beetle (maybe a lady beetle species)

My grandma found this insect that looks like a lady beetle. but I couldn't find out the species. I live in India and it is currently monsoon here. I only have a photo. Please do tell me what this is. ...
5
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0answers
70 views

How to reduce the quantity of (carcinogenic) mycotoxins in oatmeal?

Like all cereals, oat is commonly (nearly systematically) contaminated by several types of mycotoxin (produced by molds) known to cause cancer{1}. Oat is one of the most infected cereals{2}. Unless ...
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0answers
13 views

Can someone identify this male Zygaenidae (subfamily Procridinae)?

Photo taken in 2018, Near Berlinchen, Germany. The immediate vincinity is Calluna on sands. The area has a an interesting vegetation with heather and broom, species-rich grasslands on poor and ...
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0answers
64 views

What animal is this? Caution, GRAPHIC!

One of my friends stumbled upon this half part of an animal. It seems lizard-like...I don't think I've ever seen a lizard that large, though. We live in Greece. Can you figure it out? Close-up and a ...
0
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2answers
32 views

Can a species include only one subspecies?

Wikipedia says: A single subspecies cannot be recognized independently: a species is either recognized as having no subspecies at all or at least two, including any that are extinct. I do not ...
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0answers
22 views

Do microorganisms produce more glucose in their extracellular environment than they need? Why?

Trichoderma reesei breaks down cellulose into beta and alpha glucose by secreting cellulases. Why do they produce far more glucose then they need when incubated with susbtrate?
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0answers
50 views

Has anyone done a study to see if plants can adapt to Martain (or otherwise non-24-hour) day lengths?

There is currently a lot of discussion of creating a colony on Mars, which has a synodic (solar) day of 24 hours, 39 minutes, and 36 seconds. This is quite close to Earth's synodic day of 24 hours, ...
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2answers
63 views

Would green light look different if blue and red cones were deactivated

When looking at a graph plotting "blue", "green" and "red" cones reponses to different wavelengths, you can see that any wavelength trigerring a response from green cones ...
0
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2answers
60 views

What is the highest concentration of sodium chloride for the oceans to be able to sustain life?

What is the maximum concentration of NaCl for life in the oceans to be possible? Was it fortuitous that the concentration was originally no higher, in which case the evolution of life on Earth would ...
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0answers
33 views

Why do people not say there are four cheeks? [closed]

In some respect, can I say there are four cheeks?
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0answers
12 views

Is there a way to use presence-absence data to inform a sampling design for a more specific survey?

I am currently in the process of designing a spatial survey to assess the abundance/density of woody debris across an ecosystem with multiple defined habitats (i.e. I am interested in not only the ...
-1
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0answers
31 views

How does the active transport occur in the cell? [closed]

Active transport is the movement of the substances from lower concentration to higher it can moved through in the cell or out of the cell , does the cell membrane is the responsible for entering the ...
-1
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1answer
58 views

What are the oldest living plants in the world today? What can you know about them? Why can some plants live so long? [closed]

What are the oldest living plants in the world today? What can you know about them? Why can some plants live so long?
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1answer
60 views

How is chicken egg a single cell

It is unexpected for ostrich or chicken egg to be single cell yet so large. How could it happen, I thought egg is made up of several single cells. If not, how is yolk a single cell http://www.alearned....
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0answers
15 views

Do moth/butterfly eggs hatch if they fall on the floor

My garden has recently had a few visiting butterflies. Pretty but they lay eggs on the undersides of my veg. The caterpillars will just wipe out the entire crop. The plot is only 3' x 2' - it has ...
3
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2answers
78 views

Do animals lie?

Have there been any studies that show or suggest that species known to be able to communicate information between individuals ever intentionally communicate false information i.e. lie? (Apart from ...
-2
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1answer
21 views

How fast does eyelid close when eyelash is triggered?

What is the reaction of blinking like when an unexpected piece of wood or something hits an eyelash and then an eyeball? A piece of stone flew into my eyeball when we knocked a wall down, and it hit ...
-1
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1answer
32 views

How is it determined which parts of an mRNA precursor are to be spliced?

According to my textbook, the same pre-mRNA sequence can get spliced in multiple different ways. But how is this regulated by the cell? How are the introns and exons to be spliced determined?
0
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1answer
49 views

What insect is featured in this picture?

At the end of the summer, we've been finding these insects in our apartment complex in Baltimore, MD. What are they and do they bite? The length is about the size of a US nickel (We've had mysterious ...
-1
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1answer
27 views

Poisonous Snakes consuming poison (chemical)

While travelling with my Son to a religious shrine, we saw a dead snake lying on the road. My Son asked a curious question to me "Dad, if Poisonous snakes consume poison (Chemical), Will they die&...
0
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1answer
65 views

Can animals count?

I would imagine that any animal, even as far back as fish, could count to some degree, simply because if they see predators, they would instinctually know there are 3 predators chasing it, and how to ...
2
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1answer
60 views

Do viruses do anything other than multiply?

Viruses are "on the edge of life ". They infect the cells and use it for multiplication of themselves but other than that do they do anything else like "eat food" like an amoeba ...
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0answers
52 views

Why is DNA sometimes palindromic and sometimes not? [closed]

Is palindromic reading of two DNA strands random? I recognise that two DNA strands are palindromic just for some sequences that are the basis of DNA splitting by endonuclease.
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0answers
38 views

Is orgasm necessary for long-term male sexual health? [closed]

Though many sources tout potential health benefits of orgasms (googling the thread title will confirm this,) I don't see any that address the question of actual necessity. Do postpubescent males need ...
0
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0answers
36 views

Protein crashing [closed]

I'm an undergrad trying to write a research proposal. I just found out that the protein I want to study is extremely prone to crashing and that the grad students + postdocs in my lab are all afraid of ...
2
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0answers
11 views

What determines if a compound is primarily uptaken by the lymphatic extensions rather than the portal vein blood supply in villi of the intestine?

I am currently studying the intestinal absorption/transport systems, but confused about one part specifically. There are hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds (to varying degrees), and they get ...
4
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1answer
51 views

Identifying insect in Sri Lanka

I saw this one in our garden in Colombo, Sri Lanka. It seemed to be hiding from the harsh sunlight that was there. I have never seen this bug before. Anyone know what bug this could be?
0
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1answer
64 views

Would it be possible to create logical circuits out of insects?

Could one organise ants, bees or any insects to do addition using logical gates: AND, OR, NOT, XOR. As inputs/signals one could imagine for example that 1 would be food and 0 would be no food.
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1answer
104 views

What is the difference between the cheeks and the near parts?

Linguistically, there should be the different property or feature between cheeks and the parts right near them for us to call cheeks “cheeks.” What is the main difference between cheeks and the other ...
-3
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0answers
19 views

What is the main function of sap vacuole?

Sap vacuole are membranous sacs located in either animal cell and plant cell,Sap vacuole has very big shape in plant cell but in animal cell has an smaller shape ,and it is surrounded by a membrane ,...
0
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0answers
22 views

Are there any other types of sex systems besides 2-sex system and the hermaphroditic system? [duplicate]

For example, 3-sex system or even more. Would a 3-sex system be too chaotic?
0
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0answers
56 views

A man of 100 kg, what will be the masses of his living human cells, dead human cells, extracellular matrix/matrices, bacteria, and the remainder?

If you’d asked me just a week ago what you’d be left with if you could magically make all the human cells and their contents (living and dead, whole or fragmented) in the human body disappear, I (and ...
-1
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0answers
26 views

DCas9 sgRNA designer? [closed]

Ever since the Zhang lab took down their SAM Cas9 activator design tool I've been looking for a good online tool that will take a target mouse gene to express as an input and output a primer design

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