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In centrosomes, the gamma-tubulin ring complexes (gamma-TuRC) located on the surface are essential as the nucleation site for the growing (with polarity) of microtubules.

However, I see that there is also a centriole (made by 2 centriole units in T-shape structure) and a centrosomal matrix. According to Wikipedia, it seems without centrioles, the cells can still function normally and grow (please correct me if I am incorrect), and it seems I cannot find much information in the internet suggesting the use of both centrioles and centrosomal matrix.

Therefore, I would like to ask what are there functional significance? And I would like to ask if we are able to make a synthetic sphere with many gamma-TuRC on its surface (without any rejection), can the cell perform a normal cell cycle?

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THis was too long for a comment.

It would be helpful for you to indicate what exactly you mean by "cells can still function normally and grow".

There are a few observations related to your question about absence of centrioles (from your wiki page):

  1. In Drosophila mitosis and development can occur to some extent in centriolar mutants, but "they die shortly after birth" due to flagellar and ciliar defects.

  2. Some organisms do not have centrioles and use other mechanisms (e.g. angiosperms).

So, in the sections of your wiki page "Fertility", "Ciliogenesis", etc., those list the functional significance of centrioles.

If what you mean is "what is the role of centrioles in mitosis", then we of course have a separate question. You can find a lot of resources on this topic via google searches.

As for your last question, about the synthetic sphere, you will have to spell out the experiment in much more detail- for example, what do you mean by "synthetic sphere"? A sphere defined by a lipid bilayer with gamma-TuRC (for example) on its surface and no other features is not a cell and won't go through a cell cycle.

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