I was reading about Hardy-Wienberg equilibrium on Wikipedia and there are seven assumptions underlying HW

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It is mentioned that sexual reproduction one of the assumption and is a must for HW, but according to some answers given here on Biology STack exchange crossing over in sexual reproduction can result in exon shuffling here is the answer I am referring to

so my question is- 1.can exon shuffling cause a new allele to appear in the population?

2. If a new allele can appear in the population during the cross over or due to crossing over as it is a random process that will surely change the allelic frequency so how can be sexual reproduction can be a underlying assumption for HW? it should be in the list of things that can affect Hardy-Wienberg like mutation and sexual selection

3. Does in majority of cases crossing over only causes reshuffling of allele but not the formation of a new allele? is mutation by crossing over is rare?

4. Can Independent assortment and Linkage have any effect on Hardy Weinberg law?

  • 3
    $\begingroup$ I'd consider creation of a new allele by intragenic crossing over a mutation. HW was developed over 100 years ago, before the molecular nature of the gene was known, so it was based on Mendelian genetics. Normally, recombination rates within a gene will not be significant. $\endgroup$
    – Armand
    Jul 9, 2021 at 19:21
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ Reading a bit futher in the Wiki entry, "Mutation will have a very subtle effect on allele frequencies. Mutation rates are of the order 10−4 to 10−8, and the change in allele frequency will be, at most, the same order. Recurrent mutation will maintain alleles in the population, even if there is strong selection against them." $\endgroup$
    – Armand
    Jul 9, 2021 at 19:25


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