Is the oxygen produced by algae in photosynthesis consumed by the fungi, specifically in marine lichens where oxygen is less abundant? I am wondering this because of a speculative evolution project.


1 Answer 1


Exchange of gases between lichen symbionts has been demonstrated for Flavoparmelia caperata. Note that this is a foliose lichen species, though the findings may be generalizable to marine lichen.

We discovered the first evidence that photosynthetic O2 and respiratory CO2 mutually power the lichen symbiosis, together with the previously recognized exchange of Calvin-cycle sugars and water.

Ten Veldhuis MC, Ananyev G, Dismukes GC. Symbiosis extended: exchange of photosynthetic O2 and fungal-respired CO2 mutually power metabolism of lichen symbionts. Photosynth Res. 2020 Mar;143(3):287-299.

  • $\begingroup$ Thank you! This was very helpful $\endgroup$ Jul 24, 2021 at 8:34
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    $\begingroup$ @katzenklavier if mine was indeed a helpful answer, I would appreciate if it was accepted. Seeing no other answers in the weeks since this was posted, I think this is reasonable. $\endgroup$
    – acvill
    Aug 18, 2021 at 21:05
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    $\begingroup$ done, sorry, I'm not to knowledgeable about this site $\endgroup$ Aug 19, 2021 at 22:35

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