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Tetrapods have tongues derived from the 2nd gill arch and nearby muscles. Lampreys are not tetrapods, and lack jaws, yet they have a tongue. What structure was this tongue adapted from?

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  • $\begingroup$ Are tongues older than jaws? Because jawed fish came from jawless fish. Could have the same origin. $\endgroup$
    – DKNguyen
    Aug 26, 2021 at 13:32
  • $\begingroup$ the tetrapod jaw is just the first gill arch. $\endgroup$
    – John
    Aug 28, 2021 at 0:49

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the "tongue" is just the bottom of the throat. Its not related to the tetrapod tongue nor are their "teeth" related to tetrapod teeth.

https://www.nature.com/articles/nature11794

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