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If this is possible, then isn't there going to be a chance to have a YY child?

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  • $\begingroup$ Welcome to Biology.SE. The Biology.SE community has agreed that questions that show little or no prior research effort are off-topic on this site as are "homework" questions unless you have shown your attempt at an answer. Please edit your question and tell us where you've looked for answers, what you do know about the topic, and where exactly you still have questions. Under researched questions may be subject to down-voting and closure. ——— Please take the tour and consult the help center starting with How to Ask for details. $\endgroup$
    – tyersome
    Oct 5 at 21:02
  • $\begingroup$ The question was clear to me. Assuming this person is not a professionally trained molecular biologist, it's impressive enough they even realize that sex chromosomes are a known feature of human genetics. They sound genuinely curious about the implications of making babies using artificial genetic editing technology on cells which if ordinarily otherwise left naturally unaltered clearly it would not be possible. It's a very important consideration we must face this century. $\endgroup$ Oct 16 at 1:26
  • $\begingroup$ @JohnCollins — Clarity is good, but not sufficient. In addition, to not demonstrating the expected prior research and containing two distinct questions, this is off-topic because it is a homework question. On the homework page the question "What is a homework question?" is answered with "A question that addresses a basic biology concept that may seem trivial to biology professionals". Knowing that at least one X chromosome is required for viability is something I would expect anyone with even high-school level biology to be aware of. $\endgroup$
    – tyersome
    Oct 18 at 1:35
  • $\begingroup$ @tyersome So did you have at look at the OP's profile? They say they are only fourteen years old. I.e., only having just begun high school. This to me seemed like a genuine answer arisen from pure curiosity and from what I recall of my own HS education the level of biology getting into actual chromosomal details would only have "homework" in AP Bio, which was primarily a seniors course with some exceptional juniors. We should be promoting such curiosity as much as possible, in the youth especially, but even in any age demographic -- so unfortunately ignorant of modern molec bio are most. $\endgroup$ Oct 18 at 4:07
  • $\begingroup$ genuine question* $\endgroup$ Oct 18 at 4:24
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I don't think it is possible. There is a lot happening to the DNA of the sperm and the egg after fertilization, and just mixing the DNA of two sperm or two eggs would not achieve that. Also, a YY embryo would not be viable because the X chromosome contain vital genes that Y does not. That's why there are people with 1X but no one with 1Y.

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    $\begingroup$ Sperms contain X and Y chromosomes, but only as haploid sets. $\endgroup$
    – Chris
    Oct 6 at 5:47
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Well, it would be difficult from specifically sperm, but if you mean from two members of the same sex -- two men, then the answer is yes. Yes it is (or, rather, will be) possible. Already, it has been done in mice (new baby mice were born from both only mothers and also only fathers):

https://www.cell.com/cell-stem-cell/pdf/S1934-5909(18)30441-7.pdf

In theory it would never be possible for two women to truly fully independently create a son (a male offspring) from their own cells, because neither of them would have the material for a Y chromosome. So that would need to be donated (just the Y chromosome). Two males could make either sex offspring (XX or XY). This would be possible through what is called induced pluripotent stem cell technology, likely CRISPR genome editing for performing the required epigenetic modifications (described in paper), and a whole variety of other quite new extremely complex advances in biotechnology which have recently been made (such as next generation sequencing for assaying the most viable possible artificially-induced sperm and egg [which could simply be made from skin cells] and variations thereof like ATAC-seq, which measures genome-wide chromatin and epigenetic information, microfluidics and nano-droplet technologies and the rise of single-cell assay capabilities of many kinds, and truly, an overwhelming further number of huge advances which would take too long to list here and which most people probably remain totally unaware of [or could even comprehend, unfortunately]). We are living in a "Golden Age" of what will without a doubt be forever historic massive, rapid leaps forward in our ability to become the designers of life, rather than the passive victims of its "natural selection".

It is not possible today, all of the mice made in the 2018 study, though they did survive through to birth and then some, were quite unhealthy and all died prematurely from genetic abnormalities (does this not happen naturally, all the time, too? Not just in mice but men as well!). But there's no doubt the understanding and refinement of the ability to do such a thing will only rapidly improve - in every field of science this has been proven to be true in modern times, literally exponentially so. And probably no more amazing than in the scientific understanding and bioengineering of living things -- once the structure of DNA was chemically precisely determined and understood (in 1953; when it was revealed not only how DNA is chemically bonded and of precisely what atoms in what 3D orientations but also why such a structure, that specific double helix anti-parallel complementary form, would make sense functionally as a source of information-containing incredible power -- the relation of its structure to the function of evolution, and of literally the birth and aging process of every animal) is when things really started to proceed at a rocket-launch speed clip. Now, at this point, your average person really does not fathom just how much our world is about to change.

It's likely in this century this will be a safe, totally feasible, possible technological power at our disposal. Now will it be legal? That's much more uncertain. But that's irrelevant to the question of is it physically possible, to which the answer is an absolute yes.

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No it is not possible,

sperm are missing most of the biochemical machinery need to produce a embryo, sperm have most most of their functional components to make them lower investment and faster. Sperm are lacking several important organelles, including the most important ribosomes. They are not fully functional cells.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26914/

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  • $\begingroup$ Who's to say it wouldn't be possible to supply such organelles, say by inducing the sperm genome into a pluripotent state via introduction of transcription factors (and probably some yet to be known method for unpacking the extremely densely packed genome, yes -- totally feasible, as, that must happen during the formation of the zygote post sperm-egg fusion, no?). The genome -- the full DNA molecular sequence, with all its unique variants (BTW - a tiny percentage: ~0.1%), is all that is really required. It has been undeniably established that life is but heritable information, stored as DNA $\endgroup$ Oct 18 at 4:16
  • $\begingroup$ In other words though sperm may lack said required machinery, what they do not lack is the instructions for building them. I'd be very wary of claiming almost anything we can imagine as far as biological artificial manipulation to be "never possible". 1) We simply cannot know that with definite certainty 2) All signs are increasingly suggesting that the possibilities for bioengineering will not only encompass all that we could currently imagine but far more, beyond what we can yet even have realized $\endgroup$ Oct 18 at 4:20
  • $\begingroup$ Also - did you read your link? I just did. Absolutely fascinating. I didn't even know this at all. But sperm are up until the very final parts of their lives (i.e. very near prior to being expelled as semen) exist cytoplasmically connected to apparently thousands or perhaps more of other essentially clonal daughters cells, and thus, share one continuous open giant elongated cytoplasm called a synctium - and thus as they complete their differentiation, are not only diploid-sufficient, but tremendously polyploid -- they are well supplied with all the normal machinery required for transcription.. $\endgroup$ Oct 18 at 4:39
  • $\begingroup$ .. and translation. You are citing the 2002 edition of The Cell textbook. Much more is probably known now on the details. But presumably the residual bodies of the synctium may be retrievable in the semen, so, it's very plausible that from a mere single sample of one male's ejaculate, a bioengineering could be applied to create new viable zygotes. In theory possibly millions even. $\endgroup$ Oct 18 at 4:42
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    $\begingroup$ @JohnCollins you seem to be interested ins something very different than the stated question. I suggest doing some research and then coming back with a specific question. $\endgroup$
    – John
    Oct 18 at 20:54

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