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During the transport of electrons, some H+ are removed from the chloroplast stroma, which causes a proton gradient to build up inside the thylakoid lumen. But what's the source of H+ in stroma at the first place?

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    $\begingroup$ Welcome to the site. Please take a tour and visit the help center. The help center has information on what makes a good question. In particular this site values strongly questions that show some evidence of an attempt to answer it by the person asking. Please edit your question with information that you have found. $\endgroup$
    – bob1
    Dec 6, 2021 at 3:56
  • $\begingroup$ I suggest you do some research before posting here. Try reading Lehninger's Biochemistry book. They have explained it very well. If still any confusion, you come back and rewrite your question. $\endgroup$ Dec 6, 2021 at 12:45

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