I'm not a biologist, but I think I have a sound layman's understanding of how mRNA vaccines are made. At least this is how it was explained to me:
- create some mRNA
- get it into a cell (with the lipid nanoparticles)
- the cell uses the mRNA, sort of like a blueprint, to create a protein (like spike protein from COVID-19)
- the body sees these proteins, attacks them and learns for the next time
So far so good. But what I can not find anywhere, is a (layman, sorry) explanation of that first step: how we can create mRNA in a lab.
In a podcast (Stuff You Should Know) it was explained that it's fairly simple and they just enter the required sequence in a computer.
That's all well and good, but I'm interested in how we can actually create a specific mRNA sequence in a lab from scratch.