The Stirling equation is expressed as follows

$J = Kf ([Pc-Pi] - σ [πc - πi])$

Here, capillary hydrostatic pressure (Pc) and Bowman's space oncotic pressure (πi) favor filtration into the tubule, and Bowman's space hydrostatic pressure (Pi) and capillary-oncotic pressure (πc) .

My questions:

  • What does σ, or Staverman's reflection coefficient, in this equation mean?
  • And by what logic or method is it determined?




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