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We live in central Maryland, USA, and pulled this off a tomato plant in our garden this morning (mid-summer). Any idea what these are? Not sure if they’re beneficial or parasitic, but I’d say the latter if I had to guess.

lumpy green balls on tomato leaf

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The shape of those looks more like caterpillar droppings (frass) than galls to me, though I've never seen them so green or shiny. Here's an image of tomato hornworm droppings, it looks quite similar to your picture: Caterpillar droppings on a leaf from the website https://www.walterreeves.com/food-gardening/vegetables/hornworm-eats-tomato-fruit/ If the balls are firmly attached to the leaf then they are galls, if they can be dislodged, then poop is more likely.

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  • $\begingroup$ On closer look poop, is more likely. $\endgroup$ Jul 22 at 19:14
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Galls, the plants reaction to certain insects. Generally no action is warranted because of minimal harm to the host plant.

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