here's as good an image as any for showing the thing about human vision that I am asking about: enter image description here

So, our retina gets an upside-down image.

My question is, do all animals' eyes work this way? Or do some have their cells report the image as-is?

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    $\begingroup$ How do you know that ours don't? How would you tell if another animal does? $\endgroup$
    – bob1
    Jan 22, 2023 at 20:48
  • $\begingroup$ "Or do some have their cells report the image as-is?" You can't objectively make judgements about perception since perception is subjective. You might as well ask what the colour red looks to different animals. Think carefully about what you mean when you say "report image as is". Relative to what? Relative to your inner ear says is down? That's not going to change how you interpret the world because "down" in the image is still going to be perceived as "down" in your ear. $\endgroup$
    – DKNguyen
    Jan 22, 2023 at 22:20
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    $\begingroup$ Look at your image (which is not quite right, btw.). Where, exactly, does the angle of light entering your eye change (there are actually three places). Any animal with a cornea and a convex lens will have an inverted image on their retina if their eyeball is deep enough. All you need to do is a search for which animals don't have the above to know if they have an inverted image on their retina or not. $\endgroup$ Jan 22, 2023 at 23:56
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    $\begingroup$ cell.com/current-biology/pdf/S0960-9822(05)00441-0.pdf $\endgroup$ Jan 23, 2023 at 5:06
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    $\begingroup$ @bob1 - Physics. Plain old physics. This has been studied extensively in almost every animal. Not sure exactly why, but it has, and it's interesting. $\endgroup$ Jan 24, 2023 at 15:27


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