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I am currently taking a course on introduction to biomolecules and the other day our professor showed us a photo describing the composition of lipid bilayers of various organelles in a eukaryotic cell. I just wanted to ask how would one go about to find these compositions? Me and my friends tried to think about it, one of them came up with an experiment in which you grow the eukaryotic cell in a medium where the only source of a particular lipid is "tagged". But the obvious mistake here is that the particular lipid you have tagged is present in all the organelle layers (how much so ever its percentage), so when you actually try to observe it, I would assume the cell will appear to be illuminated throughout. Any help would be appreciated.

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The characterization of lipids in specific organelles would not be done in an intact cell, like you said, since the entire cell would light up with all the organelles spread around throughout the cytoplasm. They are separated, usually through subcellular and suborganellar fractionation so that each organelle can be characterized separately. Then, when the fractions containing each organelle or groups of organelles are separate, the lipids in each fraction can be further separated using a method like gas chromatography (essentially any good chemical separation technique will do) and then identified with mass spectrometry. One paper that describes this process in more detail is this one: https://www.jbc.org/article/S0021-9258(20)70077-3/fulltext

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