In the research performed by Micheal Levin et al, the morphological changes induced by changes in bio electricity are well demonstrated, most strikingly in his experiments in planarian worms. Yet while doing a comprehensive review of his work, I either did not understand well or overlooked it entirely, but I could not find how he and his team were able to rigorously and meticulously regulate the bioelectricity.

I will be using the following article as a basis Endogenous Bioelectric Signaling Networks: Exploiting Voltage Gradients for Control of Growth and Form

In “Control of Growth and Form” there is mention of “specific ionophores and molecules” as well as changing the the electric fields within cells, but there is no specificity regarding the nature of the compounds and methodology here apart from a generalized overview. So I am unclear how the ion channels are selectively changed with such high degree of precision. I imagine they are changing the quantities and frequency of certain neurotransmitters but there is only so much I can extrapolate.

My background is solely on chemical synthesis so many of the mechanism and jargon might go over my head and I understand this is a emerging and complicated topic, but any help or re-direction regarding this question/topic would appreciated.

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    $\begingroup$ The article you shared is a review article so methods will not be described in detail. You can try cheking the method section of some papers in the reference section to get an idea of keywords to search for. $\endgroup$
    – Roni Saiba
    May 20, 2023 at 3:34
  • $\begingroup$ Ionosphere is a rare or confused term to use in biology, Ion channels make sense... Ionospheres are 99.9% atmospheric, so it makes the term confused to employ in biology. Why not ask chat.openai.com questions like "explain in advanced academic language how bioelectricity is used on a biochemical level to influence growth and development of body structures. " ... OK it's experimental, like asking a confused professor who makes erroneous statements, but it can help you to understand the different areas of the field, then you can look at videos on ion fluxes / electrochemical gradient of cells. $\endgroup$ May 20, 2023 at 15:58
  • $\begingroup$ By the way, if you are studying the biochemistry of form development, you should research signalling biochemistry used to decide cell orientation, distance, size and development, because there are chemicals that exist in both arms and legs to make them exactly the same length, and those chemicals also decide thousands of other cellular arrangements. studies have been done on fruit flies, and they have electrical potential so they are in common with the field. $\endgroup$ May 20, 2023 at 16:04
  • $\begingroup$ You are correct. I typed ionophore and ionosphere, as I do research on both. I did ask ChatGPT but it gave contradictory and null results. $\endgroup$ May 20, 2023 at 21:36
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    $\begingroup$ Thanks Bryan. Yeah Chat isn’t my first option, I always use it to give it a glance. I’ll absolutely do what you suggest once I can access academic journals again. Out of my university and having problems accessing online research. I’ll edit my question once my knowledge has expanded but thanks for the advice on Purves and Kandel $\endgroup$ May 21, 2023 at 1:43


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