Prey must be vigilant when their predators are around.
Predators may affect mortality (and morbidity, i.e. loss of quality of life) through these mechanisms:
Direct attacks, including injuries sustained if the prey manages to escape.
Changes in the prey's foraging/hunting behavior which may restrict access to high-quality food sources.
A chronic stress response, which in humans has been documented to increase mortality.
Have the health effects of chronic stress in wild prey populations been documented? Can the strength of effect (3) be comparable to (1) or (2)?