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Recently, i watched evolution vs creationism especially in islam view of evolution. There is one particular guy called subboor ahmad (he is muslim apologist). he claimed that there is an assumption of homology and that assumptions are being disputed by homoplasy. so i want to know if the statement of of assumptions of homology is actually correct or not? if not then how we can determine homology or homoplasy in first place?

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    $\begingroup$ That's a pretty broad question. You'd have to start with a pretty good understanding of evolution to have a more specific question. Both have occurred in evolution. $\endgroup$ Jul 1, 2023 at 1:24
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    $\begingroup$ i have very basic understanding on evolution. my apologies for asking very broad question due to lack brief understanding on evolution . Thanks for sharing the info. Its very helpful for me $\endgroup$
    – Piee 3.14
    Jul 1, 2023 at 1:36
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    $\begingroup$ there is no assumption of homology, homology is a conclusion of comparing billions of features across genera, Homology not existing would require a breathtaking amount of coincidence, to not have homology it would be much closer to the tornado assembling a working 747 the creationists are always on about. $\endgroup$
    – John
    Jul 1, 2023 at 22:13
  • $\begingroup$ @John - Both homology and homoplasy (aka convergent evolution) have occurred (and homoplasy not even rarely.) If you want to say homology is not assumed but an absolute, that's an erroneous statement. Continued expression of lactase arose at least three times in different populations, and sight multiple times as well. This is a valid question. $\endgroup$ Jul 2, 2023 at 20:23
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    $\begingroup$ @anongoodnurse I was referring to to the fact that homology exists, the apologist the OP is referring too claims the existence of homology is an unfounded assumption $\endgroup$
    – John
    Jul 3, 2023 at 13:07

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I can´t remember to have heard of an "assumption of homology"; i studied (evolutionary) biology in Germany for several years. If I understand correctly, you are wondering how to tell homology and homoplasy apart? For morphological traits there are for example Remane's criteria (a german zoologist, he developed this in 1952), that can help to determine if a given structure (a bone or smth. like that) is a homologous structure. There is the 1. positional criterion (a similar position in a comparable system of features points to homology, i.e. how the front limbs of land vertebrates are structured and placed). The second one is the 2. structural criterion and the third one is the 3. transitional criterion ("Stetigkeit" = continuity) where you try to identify transitions/intermediate forms of a trait in different organisms. It is definitely not just assumed that similar traits are homologous, even though there are lots of traits that remain "unsolved".

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