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I am reading a journal paper. In this paper, they inject adeno-associated viruses into the brains of rats. In the below figure, there is something that I want to clarify:

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In Figure A, I am not sure what is meant by "Bregma -4.36mm". I have read that bregma and lambda are two locations on the surface of the skull that allows for stereotactic identification of parts of the brain.

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What is meant by the -4.36mm after Bregma? Any advice is appreciated.

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4.36 mm anterior to (in front of) Bregma, it's the label for this coronal section of brain

If you look up a rodent brain atlas, the coordinates need some reference point; they typically use skull features, either Bregma or Lambda, for the anterior/posterior direction. They've likely taken their section, compared it to the atlas they have, and labeled it with the atlas page that looks most similar to the section.

The medial reference is usually the midline, so measured in mm left or right of midline. The dorsal ventral reference is typically a flat line between Bregma and Lambda, as well.

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