I have a question regarding how positional memory in fibroblasts work, specifically, where the memory comes from/how its made.

For example, the Salamander & other amphibians are able to regenerate almost perfect copies of decapitated limbs, but lets say we have a female Salamander who is effectively given hormone therapy to “masculinise” them, if a limb was severed, would it grow back according to the hormone profile? So essentially a bit smaller since males are typically smaller?

I’m very interested in the possibility of sex change through genetics, especially after bones have fused, effectively a reversal. It seems as though this may be a way forward though I am unsure.

Thank you for reading!


1 Answer 1


I don't have in depth knowledge about how amphibians are regenerate their limbs but in embryonic development all tissue's cells differentiate and come from stem cells according to tissue they inhibit or enhance the transcription of which genes that defines the attributes of tissue. Connective tissue such as fibroblasts differentiated from mesenchymal stem cells. So, in theory if you want to regnerate or in this case replace the "Feminine" muscle and bone alignment with "masculine" we need Embryonic STEM cells to generate it but also we need to broke down former ones. So just we need to utilize apoptosis and use gene therapy to do that. There is risks involved currently with recent gene theraphy techniques and also concentrations and conditions in vitro are affecting the differentiation process when using ste cells. In short every tissues fate decided by STEM cells. Ah I checked stem cells, I just googled sex change by stem cells and find some articles Click first! "They produce male and female stem cells from same person that have mosaicism"

And also second!"Tissue Engineering Neovagina for Vaginoplasty in Mayer–Rokitansky–Küster–Hauser Syndrome and Gender Dysphoria Patients: A Systematic Review"

And lastly!"Biotechnologies that empower transgender persons to self-actualize as individuals, partners, spouses, and parents are defining new ways to conceive a child: psychological considerations and ethical issues"

  • $\begingroup$ Thanks for the response! In the case of an adult having their muscular skeletal structure changed from feminine to masculine & vice versa, would the cells have to at least have the memory to create the post-pubescent human structures? So perhaps growing subject tissue under a sex hormone & transferring the relevant genetic information over to the main subject? $\endgroup$
    – user105463
    Commented Sep 2, 2023 at 4:34

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