As someone already mentioned in one of the following questions, the TCA circuit generates GTP in addition to NADH and FADH2. The fate of NADH and FADH2 is clear: they are used to pump protons in the electron transfer system.

Why is GTP, not ATP, produced in Gluconeogenesis & TCA Cycle?

However, the fate of GTP seems less clearly described. I have seen a weak statement that "1 mol of GTP can produce 1 mol of ATP," but I do not know when, where, what, and how the energy of GTP is diverted to the production of ATP.


My question;
When, where, what and how GTP generated in the TCA circuit is used to generate ATP


1 Answer 1


There are direct enyzme-catalyzed pathways for reversible conversions among nucleoside diphosphates and triphosphates, via nucleoside-diphosphate kinases. See also https://archive.org/details/biochemistry200100jere/page/476/mode/2up (link to Berg's Biochemistry from that Wikipedia page).

Note that all of the triphosphates are used for some things in the cell, RNA synthesis in particular, so it's necessary for the cell to be able to generate them all.


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