I mean like every cell has a sex chromosome.So does a male with XY chromosomes has all the cells in all the organs inside his body of XY chromosomes only? And vice versa.....

  • $\begingroup$ Same as comment on Aurelius' answer: "sex" isn't a property of a cell. At best, it is a property of a whole organism related to its reproductive plumbing. I think that you are interested in the idea of "karyotype" and "aneuploidy", and more specifically the idea of sex chromosome mosaicism is well known. $\endgroup$ Commented Nov 26, 2023 at 19:19
  • $\begingroup$ @MaximilianPress but doesn't sex chromosome mosaicism affect the entire organism? I guess OP is asking for that but in some cells only $\endgroup$
    – Aurelius
    Commented Nov 26, 2023 at 19:58
  • $\begingroup$ @Aurelius It seems like OP is talking about whether all cells always have identical sex chromosomes within an organism- OP should feel free to update if it's otherwise. Mosaicism means exactly that not all cells have identical karyotype. Mosaicism will be apparent in any collection of cells greater than 1 if any two of them differ in karyotype. $\endgroup$ Commented Nov 26, 2023 at 21:42
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    $\begingroup$ there are biological males with no Y and instead XX chromosomes. there are biological females with XY chromosomes. $\endgroup$
    – John
    Commented Nov 27, 2023 at 0:15

1 Answer 1


Every organism(sexually reproducing) starts life from a single cell zygote formed by union of sperm and ovum.

Since all cells are formed by mitotic divisions and differentiation of the zygote, the number and type of chromosomes remain same in every cell of the body.

In rare cases however there maybe chances of aneuoploidy of the chromosomes during cleavage or later mitotic divisions. As given in the article, post-implantation mitotic aneuploidy is rare and is checked. Should it escape:

Mitotic aneuploidies have been suggested to affect the developmental potential of human preimplantation embryos, possibly leading to developmental arrest or embryo loss at later stages of development. Mitotic aneuploidies may contribute to implantation failure or when compatible with implantation, may result in fetal or confined placental mosaicism. It might also cause serious fetal complications like intrauterine growth delay, congenital malformations, mental retardation, and uniparental disomy.

If chromosomal abnormalities occur after immune system has started working, it can be taken care of.

It's rare to have mitotic aneuploidy in a person. To have it in two chromosomes(the allosomes) is even rarer

In conclusion it will be extremely rare for a living cell to have different sex than that of the person

For plants though it is much more common.

Edit: As @BryanKrause has pointed out. Chimera are another cause. If chimera due to organ transplant is also considered makes it not so rare as I mentioned

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    $\begingroup$ I don't think that "sex" is a property of a cell. At best, it is a property of a whole organism related to its reproductive plumbing. Karyotype != sex (!= gender). $\endgroup$ Commented Nov 26, 2023 at 19:16
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    $\begingroup$ Chimeras are also rare but it happens. $\endgroup$
    – Bryan Krause
    Commented Nov 26, 2023 at 20:57
  • $\begingroup$ All women who have been given birth (or maybe past some point of a pregnancy) are effectively chimeras. Most (if not all, haven't bothered to search for exceptions) such mothers have cells containing the DNA of their children in their bodies for years (if not forever) after the birth. $\endgroup$
    – CXJ
    Commented Feb 26 at 4:21

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