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I just read about Price Equation and I thoroughly enjoyed the concept, as well as the elegance of the mathematical formulation. I especially enjoyed the fact that (to quote Wikipedia) it is "a purely mathematical relationship between various statistical descriptors of population dynamics".

I had no idea of even the existence of such elegant mathematics in biology. I have always thought biological systems or phenomena to be dealing with exceptions all the time. This on the other hand is close to a physical law, even if it is not exactly a law and merely (a severe understatement IMO) a mathematical relationship.

What are other similar mathematical relationships in biology that you could suggest? I'm especially interested in physiology, immunology, or similar topics.

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    $\begingroup$ I'd recommend searching this site, there are a lot of very closely related questions with worthwhile answers. See e.g. biology.stackexchange.com/questions/113997/…. I'll repeat what I wrote there, which is to say that you should go read Maynard Smith's book on mathematical biology. Population genetics and evolutionary theory are rife with examples. See also neuroscience (Hodgkin-Huxley), kinetics (michaelis-menten), population biology (Lotka-Volterra), .... $\endgroup$ Apr 9 at 22:10
  • $\begingroup$ The books A Primer of Population Biology (Wilson & Bossert) and The Theory of Island Biogeography (MacArthur & Wilson) are two very accessible sources of mathematical biology in evolution and ecology. I feel like any reasonably complete physiology text book at least has primers on mathematical relationships describing function like oxygen affinity (hemoglobin/myoglobin), blood circulation, action potentials, enzyme kinetics, membrane transport, gas exchange, and many others. $\endgroup$
    – MikeyC
    Apr 10 at 19:17
  • $\begingroup$ Thanks for the comments. Would you say that Hodgkin-Huxley or Michelis-Menten are comparable to Price Equation since the Price equation doesn't seem to make any strong assumptions unlike the other two? I liked the Price equation precisely because it doesn't depend on biological details and doesn't make any assumptions (except that the system is made of replicating elements). HH or MM models are, well, models trying to approximate a certain biological phenomenon to varying details (and there seem to be variations of the models themselves). $\endgroup$ Apr 15 at 23:11

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