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I am reading a journal paper about the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor. I have a question about the following statement in the paper:

IGF/IGF-IR stimulates the PI3K-Akt pathway in a stereotypical way – sustained tonal induction. Sustained induction is thought to define the specific biological outcomes of IGF signaling, and distinguish the function of the IGF ligand from other RTKs/ligands that access the Akt cascade (Gross and Rotwein, 2016; Kubota et al., 2012). In particular, sustained activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway, mediated by IGF-IR, induces cell proliferation in multiple types of cells, cell survival in neural cells, and protein homeostasis in skeletal muscle cells (Fernandez and Torres-Alemán, 2012; Fukushima et al., 2012; Ness and Wood, 2002; Sacheck et al., 2004; Stewart and Rotwein, 1996). To date, the mechanism by which IGF-IR produces sustained signaling remains poorly understood.

What is meant by "sustained tonal induction"? I have searched online but could not find any specific results.

Any advice is greatly appreciated.

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    $\begingroup$ On a quick (limited) search, it looks like that's the only paper using that particular phrase, but the concept of sustained activity is explained in the body of the paper. I'd throw out the tonal; sustained induction of that pathway is discussed in many papers. $\endgroup$ Commented Jun 10 at 11:10

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