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As I understand it, it can be difficult to compute the metabolic cost of regenerating the coenzyme oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). Is there a way to estimate it, for example, in terms of ATP consumed or something like that?

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  • $\begingroup$ What do you mean by "metabolic cost"? That is a term used in physiology and exercise science relating to energy expenditure in movement. Please quote a source that provoked this question. If you refer to a specific reaction (eg pyruvate to lactate) one can find values of standard Gibbs Free Energy change, for, as you must be aware, no ATP is involved in that reaction. Or do you mean the notional loss in overall ATP generated from glucose compared with the aerobic process in which the pyuvate is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water? That depends a little on estimates of the yield in ox phos. $\endgroup$
    – David
    Commented Jun 11 at 9:29

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