Let's assume for a minute that microbes themselves and their direct toxic products (i.e. endotoxins) aren't toxic to humans. Let's also discount any innate immune responses the body mounts against the invading microbe (i.e. inflammation and production of cytokines).
What happens to food molecules (mechanistically) as it spoils and what deleterious effects do these "spoil products" have on the body if ingested? I'm looking for compounds that can result from the spontaneous breakdown of food or the byproducts of microbial metabolism (that is NOT a "direct" toxin) that is harmful to the body.
For example, do the proteins in food break down into some toxic nitrogenous substance?