We know that the nucleus of the cell is the White House of the cell and its DNA is the president and it commands to make protein. So my question when DNA only codes for protein and enzymes,after the birth of a new cell where does the cell get lipids and carbohydrates to make membranes, organelles, water, ions, plasma membrane etc ...?


1 Answer 1


Molecules like complex lipids and carbohydrates are all synthesized by a special class of proteins that catalyze chemical reactions, called enzymes. Since the information of these proteins is coded for in the nucleus, you can imagine that ultimately the synthesis of these molecules does boil down to the genome.

The basic building blocks that the enzymes use to synthesize complicated molecules come from things you eat. Of course, we eat things that were once alive, and so the molecules that we get have been built up through enzymatic processes in the organisms we eat.

Ultimately, the "pre-organism" source of most of our molecules is CO2 from the air. Plants and photosynthetic algae have proteins that allow them to use the energy of the sun to reduce the carbon, making useful compounds such as glucose.

  • $\begingroup$ so imagine the first cell of the universe the begining of the world where the cells got there other molecules?? $\endgroup$
    – user4147
    Feb 28, 2014 at 5:00
  • $\begingroup$ Looks like in the beginning of the world there were a lot of organic molecules available (since there wasn't bacteria to eat them). The cells only began building them after a long process of natural selection. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abiogenesis $\endgroup$
    – Rodrigo
    Feb 28, 2014 at 19:14

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