At frequency 0-3 Hz. Like computer processors which can work at low frequencies and controlling under- and overvoltage.

Normal most significant channels are Ca2+ and K+ that are changing. However, I am not convinced that they can work with such a low frequencies. There must be some other channels that are triggering the extrasystole on.

Which ionic channels of Pacemakers can work in 2-3 Hz triggering extrasystole?


I think none. It is so specific frequency range that the possible sources are

  • autonomic nervous system and
  • some reflex arch.

Also, the frequency is logically low with autonomic triggering. My conjecture is that sympaticus starts up extrasystoles. I think it must go through some reflex arch to be so specific.


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