I know that one is a female chicken and the other is male chicken. Are the chickens laying eggs considered the same species as those that we use for poultry meat? Or, are they different sub-species, analogous to how there are multiple breeds of dogs?
The main difference between a rooster and a hen is that the former is male and the latter is female. Their appearance differs in several ways .
A rooster also known as a cockerel or cock, is a male gallinaceous bird. The term usually refers to a male chicken . The hen or the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the Red Junglefowl .
And yes, the chickens laying eggs could be the same as the chickens that we use for poultry meat.
There are probably different breeds that are commercially preferred for egg laying versus eating.
Yes, they are the same species. Meat birds and layers are the same species, they have just been bred differently to produce a certain result. (Along these lines, you may wish to picture a tomato, there are many different shapes and colors. However, they are all the same thing.). As with humans, certain chickens have certain characteristics. And to an extent "personalities". It does appear, based on this link, that chickens are a subspecies of Red Junglefowl. However, chickens themselves do not appear to have an subspecies within them. Sorry I had to use Wikipedia.