I am reading this paragraph about RS killed-vaccine in Encyclopedia of Virology, Third Edition (2008), vol. 3, pp. 70-77

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What is this data called by which you can say that the frequencies of eosinophils and neutrophils increased within airways?

I think sample is first taken from throat and cultivated on some general culture (blood agar). Then, specimen is looked under microscope. Similarly done for the sample after vaccine. Then, visual comparison with identifying visually eosinophils and neutrophils.

Is the conclusion made based on culturing, microscopy and visual sampling by eye?

Mass spectrometry

I am not sure anymore if this technique is useful at all. Mass spectrometry can give different intensities and masses. If so, the intensity of the corresponding peaks should be greater after the vaccine. Can this kind of conclusion be made based on mass spectrometry?

Interesting would be to know the exact spectrum of eosinophils and neutrophils after the vaccine. I think they do not increase proportionally. The one increases more than the other.

  • $\begingroup$ Protein mass spec in the 1960s? In this time Sanger did the first protein sequencing, so I highly doubt that it happened with it. From which paper comes this information or has your textbook linked some reference for that? I would say these are either biopsies which are subsequently stained or swabs that where tested. This is from the "Desk Encyclopedia of General Virology" right? $\endgroup$
    – Chris
    May 5 '14 at 14:17
  • $\begingroup$ @Chris Today. Can you make such a test with mass spectrometry? I think yes, but the problem can be the amount of the substance from the cultivated specimen. $\endgroup$ May 5 '14 at 14:19
  • $\begingroup$ I think there are ways, yes. $\endgroup$
    – Chris
    May 5 '14 at 15:03

The original tests where done with blood and then:

An eosinophillc index was calculated by multiplying the percentage of eosinophiles found in the routine white blood count by the total white blood count. An index of greater than 250 was considered positive.

See table 8 in this paper: "Field evaluation of a respiratory syncytial virus vaccine and a trivalent parainfluenza virus vaccine in a pediatric population." So they measure the eosinophils in the periphery not in the airways.

This article used histologic techniques: "Respiratory syncytial virus disease in infants despite prior administration of antigenic inactivated vaccine." Both articles are from 1969.

Newer studies used micropical techniques and FACS analysis, but these experiments were done with mice: "Respiratory synctial virus infection in BALB/c mice previously immunized with formalin-inactivated virus induces enhanced pulmonary inflammatory response with a predominant Th2-like cytokine pattern."

  • $\begingroup$ Thank you for your clear meta-analysis and excellent sources! I asked this question because I am interested in separating differently energetic (number of vacuoles inside and their size) eosinophils and neutrophils from one another in video. In all those publications, we have two stages: 1) initial and 2) shortly after the vaccination. I am interested in what is happening between and after these two stages among granulocytes. Some method which enables me to take samples continuously. I think histology and microscopy of each stage is necessary. Then processing pictures and making t-f plane. $\endgroup$ May 5 '14 at 18:47

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