I found the Hill muscle model, which helps relate the force a muscle can generate to its change in length over time (its "contraction velocity"). Is there a similar model to get an idea of the energy consumed during a contraction as a function of the force generated?
You can calculate the energy consumption using basic physics formulas.
Work = Force x Distance
and the unit of work is the Joule. Therefore if force is a function of change in length then substituting this function in for force in the above calculation we have that work is a function of length.
If you want to talk about energy consumed in terms of calories rather than joules,
1 calorie = 4.184 joules