The plateau phase is maintained by influx of calcium and outflux of potassium in the second stage:

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My conjecture is that calcium transforms between two phases

  • ionated phase (free calcium from i/c SR and e/c Ca-ATPase)
  • non-ionated phase (bound to some proteins).

The initial form can be ionated. The process of deionisation occurs only in all-or-nothing cases - I see no evidence that this process can be continuous in my data. My another conjecture why this deionisation can occur is because of the vortexes in the diastolic phase of ventricles (T wave; blood bouncing back to the tricuspid valve).

Which sources can correspond to this non-ionated calcium more? My conjecture is e/c Ca more because longer travelling distance and entry involves accelerative movement. Actually, this can differ depending on the situation at hand.

The accelerative movement can also contribute more to ionisation process so the situation can be reverse in some cases. How is Calcium released from Sarcoplasmic reticulum? Steadily or in accelerative motion or in a vortex.

How are Calcium forms regulated during action potential of myocardial cell plateau phase?

Keywords: Local Ca2+ signaling in health and diseases.

  • $\begingroup$ Aren't there models on this already? $\endgroup$
    Dec 24, 2014 at 13:37
  • $\begingroup$ @WYSIWYG Thank you for your good comments! This is the question which I leave open or not delete. There are some visualisations about this but not found any good one. I just need to search it with appropriate words probably. One Google search calcium action potential plateau filetype:swf. Probably, muscle contraction action potential better giving course.zju.edu.cn/532/study/theory/2/Cell/… but I have difficulty in playing this. Other SWF's were not from good sources and bad quality. Better search words needed. $\endgroup$ Dec 24, 2014 at 13:58
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    $\begingroup$ I heard many talks on mathematical models for cardiac action potential and the role of calcium waves. You can see this guy's work. I am not sure if there is an animation but he once showed in one of his talks a nice simulation of spatial waves in heart . $\endgroup$
    Dec 25, 2014 at 9:38
  • $\begingroup$ @WYSIWYG Thank you very much for the mentioning the name of one relevant researcher here! I just downloaded a bunch of his articles. If you remember anything more, please write an answer or comment. I will write an overview when I understand this topic better. $\endgroup$ Dec 25, 2014 at 11:38
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    $\begingroup$ Speaking of non-ionised calcium means that it is available in the form of Ca atoms, which is highly unlikely in an aqueous environment of a cell. I would better write "bound" and "free" calcium. $\endgroup$
    – Chris
    Dec 27, 2014 at 9:49


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