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I've photographed this flower a few days ago in New York City:

enter image description here

Does anybody know the name of it? (and how is the orange part called?)

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It's Echinacea. I've linked to one site but if you run an images search with Echinacea as the search term you'll see lots of examples.

And here is the WP page.

Supplementary

Echinacea are members of the Compositae. The flower (the head) in your picture is actually made up of lots of individual smaller flowers (i.e. it is a composite flower). The petals are formed by ray flowers, and the central part, the disc is made up of disc flowers. More details at the WP page I have linked to for Compositae.

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    $\begingroup$ And how is the orange part called? $\endgroup$ Jul 15, 2014 at 12:05
  • $\begingroup$ @moose it is the head inflorescence which consists of ray florets and disk florets $\endgroup$ Jul 15, 2014 at 13:17
  • $\begingroup$ @moose it is not a flower actually but an inflorescence which resembles like a flower. ray florets in general are situated at the peripheral parts of inflorescence and disk florets are situated in the centre which is a unique feature of asteraceae (other name for compositae) $\endgroup$ Jul 15, 2014 at 13:20
  • $\begingroup$ @moose ray florets are the female flowers and disk florets are the bisexual flowers $\endgroup$ Jul 15, 2014 at 13:22
  • $\begingroup$ The first link is dead. $\endgroup$ May 22, 2016 at 12:10

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