Can standard viruses infect bacteria? I'm not speaking of bacteriophage but typical RNA and DNA virus such as influenza and Ebola.
I'm not so sure about my answer. But I think "bacteriophage" is a polyphyletic name of which was defined by the ability of infecting bacteria, but not defined by the genetic, evolutionary, or morphological relationships.
It seems that if a species (or a taxon in a higher taxonomic level) of virus is infectious to bacteria, it will be classified as a member of the bacteriophage.
Here is a review article about the phage classification.
The word infect is an encapsulation of several activities: transcription, translation, viral entry, budding, lysis, etc. When you ask if a eukaryotic virus (influenza, ebola) can infect a prokarytoic cell (bacteria) you are asking if these viruses can do the same activities. The answer is no.
- Translation is mediated by ribosomes, which are different in prokaryotes/eukaryotes.
- Transcription is mediated by viral RNA polymerase which may be contained in viral nucleic acid. This is possible, but useless without translation of the mRNA.
- Viral entry is mediated by cell surface features and would be incompatible for eukaryotic viral entry into prokaytoic cells, and the reverse.
- Viral budding is mediated by viral proteins inserted into the cell membrane. This is prohibited since a eukaryotic virus is unable to enter a prokaryotic cell/translate its proteins.
- Lysis is mediated by excessive buildup of viral particles inside a cell. This is also prohibited by an incompatibility of eukaryotic/prokaryotic cell surface, translation machinery.