The article Ants Swarm Like Brains Think really helped me to understand the way that neurons which are pretty dumb on their own (like ants) can work together to create a pretty genius system (a brain or an ant-hive). The idea is that both the neurons and the ants function majorly via positive and negative feedback, which is really neat to understand.
However as shown in that article, sometimes groups of ants get caught in something called a feedback loop. They can repeat the same action over and over because the positive feedback is just being relayed from ant to ant to ant in a circle, and the ants can do something unhealthy such as walk in a circle for days. I don't know any examples of negative feedback loops but they would presumably also be unhealthy.
As noted in the comments, this is an analogy, but not without a good reason: The brain does work via positive and negative feedback. And that does create the potential for feedback loops.
So I'm curious about what biological features in neurons help to avoid these feedback loops in our brains. How does the brain avoid feedback loops?