Milk contains sugar and proteins which give energy. What compounds in alcoholic beverages (edited) give energy? Are they more likely to turn into fat (as in beer belly) than blood glucose?
By chronic alcohol consumption there is another pathway involving MEOS which converts ethanol to AcKoA as well.
Are they more likely to turn into fat (as in beer belly) than blood glucose?
It won't turn into glucose, just into fat.
It is suspected that in extreme cases, like low glucose diets and starvation there is an AcKoA -> glucose pathway.
So in theory it is possible to convert ethanol to glucose, but there is not enough evidence of that yet. Normally this conversion (if it exists) does not happen, or it has a very low rate...
What compounds in alcoholic beverages (edited) give energy?
Mostly ethanol and sugar. E.g. sweet wine contains a lot of sugar, not just ethanol...
Going off the assumption that you are using 'alcohol' in the sense of 'alcoholic beverage', it really depends on what kind of beverage we're talking about, but all that information is on the label of the bottle, can or box.
As for ethanol itself, some energy is freed by the metabolising of ethanol into ethanal and further into ethanoic acid, before finally being decomposed to carbon dioxide and water.
Finally, energy is energy: The source of the energy doesn't really affect where the energy ends up, that depends mostly on external factors.
Ethanol gives roughly 7 kcal/g, compared to carbohydrates which give roughly 4 kcal/g.
100 ml of beer contains (about) 4 grams of ethanol, beyond which the carbohydrate content varies according to the beer in question, but usually hovers around 3 g.
At a rough estimate the caloric contribution from ethanol is about 0.28 kcal/ml, and carbohydrates about 0.12 kcal/ml. When accounting for the traces of proteins, this gives roughly 0.4 kcal/ml, roughly the same as your common or garden variety soda.