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Diabetes patients need to conduct the “fingerstick” a few times a day. One of the mechanisms of "fingerstick" is to take small amount of blood sample and put it onto a test strip. The enzyme on the test strip reduces the glucose and the electronics of the glucose meter detect the redox species produced. However, this method is painful and increase the risk of infection.

Photonic sensing technology opens up a new method for non-invasive blood glucose concentration. According to an article of medGadget in 2013 (The link follows http://www.medgadget.com/2013/10/non-invasive-measurement-of-blood-glucose-levels-using-glucotrack-interview.html ), the non-invasive kind was invented. By simply clipping onto the earlobe (without puncturing the skin), the blood glucose concentration could be measured. Does anybody knows the working principle for that? Or, suggest a paper describing that?

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    $\begingroup$ Just saw a talk by Mark Arnold, who does some of this research with NIR spectroscopy. Might be a good place to start. $\endgroup$ – user137 Oct 23 '14 at 1:50
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This is not a new thing, by checking the articles about non-invasive glucose level measurement, it started in the early 90's.

Near-infrared (NIR) spectra of the human inner lip were obtained by using a special optimized accessory for diffuse reflectance measurements. The partial-least squares (PLS) multivariate calibration algorithm was applied for linear regression of the spectral data between 9000 and 5500 cm−1 (λ = 1.1-1.8 μm) against blood glucose concentrations determined by a standard clinical enzymatic method. Calibration experiments with a single person were carried out under varying conditions, as well as with a population of 133 different patients, with capillary and venous blood glucose concentration values provided. A genuine correlation between the blood glucose concentrations and the NIR-spectra can be proven. A time lag of about 10 min for the glucose concentration in the spectroscopically probed tissue volume vs. the capillary concentration can be estimated. Mean-square prediction errors obtained by cross-validation were in the range of 45 to 55 mg/dL. An analysis of different variance factors showed that the major contribution to the average prediction uncertainty was due to the reduced measurement reproducibility, i.e., variations in lip position and contact pressure. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using diffuse reflectance NIR-spectroscopy for the noninvasive measurement of blood glucose.

There are multiple approaches, mostly spectroscopy, but dielectric properties (e.g. conductivity) can depend on glucose levels too. Saliva can be used to measure glucose levels as well.

The details of each technology you can find of wikipedia.

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