In Wang et al., the authors state on page 663 at the top that

Furthermore, Bax-/- Bak-/- cells were completely resistant to paclitaxel-induced apoptosis.

What's the meaning of the -/- notation? Bax and Bak are proteins involved in apoptosis.


-/- means both copies of the gene (both alleles) are knocked out

  • 1
    $\begingroup$ I guess I need to brush up on my molecular biology, but by "both copies" you mean, both copies present during mitosis? $\endgroup$ – TMOTTM Nov 9 '14 at 12:11
  • 3
    $\begingroup$ As chromosomes come in pairs (bar the X chromosome in males), each gene is also present twice. -/- means both are knocked out. $\endgroup$ – AliceD Nov 9 '14 at 12:20

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