I am studying a case of tendinopathies induced by an alteration of how the extracellular matrix is being remodeled.

From my understanding there has to be a careful balance of MMP (metallproteinases) and TIMP enzymes to maintain tendon homeostasis.

Which cells produce these enzymes?


1 Answer 1


Taken from The role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Metalloelastase (MMP-12) is (as the name suggests) capable of degrading elastin, as well as other extra-cellular matrix components. It is produced predominantly by infiltrating macrophages and appears essential for macrophage migration through extra-cellular matrix

Matrix Metalloproteinases in Cancer Cell Invasion gives a more thorough description of the various MMP and TIMP types

MMPs are mainly produced by nonmalignant stromal cells in malignant tumors. Tumor cells also secrete factors, such as extracellular MMP inducer (EMMPRIN), which enhance the expression of MMPs by stromal fibroblasts (see Toole, in this book). In addition, growth factors and cytokines secreted by tumor-infiltrating inflammatory cells as well as by tumor or stromal cells modulate MMP expression.

  • $\begingroup$ Thanks for your input... I am trying to understand how Fluoroquinolone drugs can degrade tendons. From what I am understand MMP-9 is of my concern: "Our study provides preliminary evidence that topical application of fluoroquinolone drugs can induce the expression of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-8 and MMP-9 in the undebrided corneal epithelium compared to artificial tear eye drops." (ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK6598) $\endgroup$
    – user952
    Jun 6, 2012 at 20:53
  • $\begingroup$ Here's another one: wikigenes.org/e/ref/e/12428247.html Ciprofloxacin enhances the stimulation of matrix metalloproteinase 3 expression by interleukin-1beta in human tendon-derived cells. A potential mechanism of fluoroquinolone-induced tendinopathy. $\endgroup$ Jun 8, 2012 at 8:33

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