A ribosome is where amino acids are linked together by peptide bonds.
A virus is NOT considered prokaryotic because it does not have a membrane.
Some have capsules or envelopes, the latter of which are composed of the host cell's membrane. A virus would not be considered a prokaryote because it is not strictly alive -- prokaryotes do not have membrane-bound organelles, but they still produce the cellular machinery necessary to process nutrients and create proteins de novo without hijacking another cell. I would say False on this one, because the presence of a membrane doesn't define either viruses or prokaryotes, ergo the lack of one wouldn't either.
The nucleotide ATP is one of the most used energy molecules of a cell.
True. The other extremely common one is GTP, an ATP analogue.
Sugar phosphates are the type of lipid moved through the blood.
False. Sugars are phosphorylated to make sure they stay inside the cell and don't enter the blood (first thing that happens to glucose and fructose is phosphorylation in energy metabolism). They are also not lipids; they are not composed of long carbon chains of varying saturation.
A compound that lowers the pH is called an acid.
True. Since pH is a measurement of the available H+ ions in solution and acids contribute available H+ ions to the solution, the more acidic the compound the lower the pH will be.
The cell wall is a carbohydrate covering of all cells.
Generally speaking, True -- of plant, some bacteria, and some archae cells. Eukaryotes do not have cell walls. The cell walls of plants are composed of a carbohydrate (sugar) polymer called cellulose (aka - dietary fiber).
The term cytosol is only applied to (blank) cells?
Prokaryotic -- for reasons listed by others.
An A-U base pair is part of the (blank) found in RNA.
I'm a bit confused on this one. RNA is generally single-stranded, not double-stranded. It should not be base-pairing with itself unless specifically designed to. However, the Uracil is the RNA complement (my best guess) to Adenosine and replaces Thymine found in regular DNA.
The major form of usable energy in animals is (what)?
Either ATP or sugars/carbohydrates. Sugars are eventually used to regenerate ATP, and fats are broken down into sugars or further down-stream metabolic components of sugars.
A polypeptide is a subunit of a what?
A protein. Proteins are composed of many polypeptide strands which usually come together to compose discrete formations (alpha-helices or beta-sheets) that then eventually form proteins.