I am interested in studying honey and other honeybee byproducts. I have not been able to find sequence or structure records for any of the contents of honey.

In particular, I want to study the protein sequence and structure and the amino acid compositions within honey.

Has any of this data been produced and published in any databases or research papers?


1 Answer 1


First of all: Honey is not a byproduct of bees - it's their main and most important product which stores energy for the bee hive for the time when no flowers are available.

Honey itself consists (according to the USDA database) to about 99.5% of water and sugars (82.5% sugars, 17% water). The sugars are mostly fructose and glucose, but also some other mono- di and tri-saccherides in traces. See reference 1 for details. It also contains trace amounts of vitamins and minerals, see table from the Wikipedia on Honey:

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The protein content varies between honey sample but is somewhere in the range between 0.2 and 0.5% (see also reference 1). The proteins come from flowers (pollen incorporated into the honey) as well as from the bees (see reference 2). Paper 1 lists a number of enzymes as most common bee proteins in the honey, but doesn't go into much more details here. These are invertase, diastase, glucose oxidase and catalase.

You could now go into the sequence databases (Apis mellifera has been complete sequenced) and look up the sequence information of the enzymes. Information can be found here and here.


  1. A review of the analytical methods to determine the geographical and botanical origin of honey
  2. Source of the honey protein responsible for apple juice clarification

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