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Other than 5-Methylcytosine and the more recently discovered 5-Hydroxymethyl, 5-formil and 5-carboxylcytosine DNA modifications found in DNA sequences, what are other DNA modifications present in vertebrate genomes? There is apparently a whole bunch of modifications that can be found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes, but I would like to know which ones have been found relevant in vertebrate/mammalian genomes of the eukaryotic ones.

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There can be other modifications resulting from DNA damage (oxidising agents etc). Those may include Xanthine and Hypoxanthine (caused by chemical deamination of guanine and adenine). There are no other known modifications resulting because of a physiological process.

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