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Industrial melanism is an example of natural selection. Can it be considered as a evolution due to anthropogenic action?

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Evolution is a change in allele frequency through time. Alleles underlying moth melanism are changing through time in response to environment change, so indeed moths are evolving.

The environmental change is induced by human activities indeed. But the question of what is the cause of the environmental change causing the selection pressure is totally irrelevant to the question of whether there is such selection pressure.

Artificial selection is in essence the exact same thing than natural selection except that there is a goal (increasing milk production or making smaller dogs for example) that is decided by humans. In the moth example, the environmental changed is caused by human activities, but it has never been a goal for human to put selection pressure on moths to force them to change color. As a consequence, change in color melanism is an evolutionary process that is induced by natural selection, selection toward a new environment.

Evolution is not just the same thing as natural selection. The reason is that other mechanism than natural selection yield to change in allele frequency. One of them is genetic drift. You can have a look to this post to have a better understanding of what genetic drift is.

Hope that helps.

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    $\begingroup$ Thanks. I got it. Your post on why genetic drift occurs in small isolated population made it better for me to understand it's occurrence in small population $\endgroup$
    – Maini who
    Mar 19, 2015 at 17:50
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    $\begingroup$ You're welcome. If I answered your question, you can check the answer. Otherwise, you can point to the elements that are still unclear to you. $\endgroup$
    – Remi.b
    Mar 19, 2015 at 19:32

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