First of all a little detail : laws of physics describe what is going on, they are not what is actually going on. Beeing able to make nearly precise predictions about the outcome of a certain action is what those formulas are about, as well as getting a feeling of how and why it actually happens this way. I would bet that neither Newton nor Einstein or any great head of physics ever tried to predict a real life action by the mathematics they know.
The key to understand how organisms predict actions is heuristics. So you and any organism on earth uses other intuitively calculated values for predicting actions. You can easily predict that every object you throw in the air will fall to the ground whether you are a physicist or not.
Prof. Gigerenzer explained this phenomena at this presentation at 36:50 unfortunately this is in German, but maybe the pictures he shows help a little bit. https://youtu.be/IderadHRCu8
An easy example: a dog that is trying to catch a thrown freesbee in the air does not know anything about mathematics. But dogs actually seem to be pretty good at predicting where a freesbee is in a good position to get caught while it is still in the air. How they do this? A dog is focusing the freesbee at a certain angle to themselve at which it would be good to get caught when they are close enough. They then ran fast or slow, always keeping the same angle, not the same distance, to the freesbee. No matter the parabola of the freesbee as long as the dog keeps the angle all is fine. When the freesbee comes close enough to get caught, the dog bites and catches the freesbee.
Do we do unconscious mathematics? Yes kind of easy sensoric heuristics. Do we do unconscious mathematics like physics? Definetly not, as I said Newton and others are formulas that work well to EXPLAIN what happens, they are not what is actually happening.