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With respect to the L-arginine Biosynthesis pathway, the very first reaction converts L-glutamate to N-acetyl L-glutamate.

In the linked reaction scheme, why are only L-glutamate and N-acetyl glutamate considered, and not acetyl-CoA or the coenzyme? Is this because L-glutamate and N-acetyl L-glutamate are the main compounds to be considered? Why are they the main compounds being considered? Are these two compounds (L-glutamate and N-acetyle L-glutamate) the ligands?

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The synthesis of N-acetylglutamate is mediated by the enzyme N-acetylglutamate synthase. This enzyme has L-glutamate as its substrate and uses acetyl-coenzyme A as a co-enzyme acetyl donor. Acetylcoenzyme A (Acetyl-CoA) is generally abbreviated in structural formulas, because it is a relatively complex molecule. The only thing of relevance is the acetyl group which is transferred from a thiol group to L-glutamate.

Note that ligands is a term reserved for molecules binding to receptors; substrates is the proper term for intermediates in enzymatic reactions.

N-acetylglutamate
N-acetylglutamate synthesis. Source: The Medical Biochemistry page

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