What are these types of reactions called in biology? Bio degradation reactions or bio transformation reactions or something else? I wish to know whether there is a generalized names for these types of pathways.
Assuming you wish to have a common name for both of these (widely differing!) pathways I basically agree with @Chris, and I would go for general terminology, namely metabolic pathways.
The pentose-phosphate pathway is neither anabolic nor catabolic so those terms won't do. The pentose-phosphate pathway is, however, closely linked to general metabolism to supply the body with C5 sugars. So metabolic pathway sounds right to me.
The other pathway is a sulfate reduction pathway, which is an anaerobic respiration pathway that uses sulfate as the terminal electron acceptor instead of oxygen. It is an entirely different pathway. However, it too is neither catabolic or anabolic, but still closely linked to metabolism. Hence, metabolic pathway is applicable here too.