If I wanted to examine human tissue samples, such as hair, blood, fingernails, etc, for their DNA, what primers would I use for the amplification of the DNA when extracted(PCR)?

edit: To look at the STR in the human genome based off of the FBI's CODIS system http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Combined_DNA_Index_System

from wikipedia:

"CODIS identifies genetic markers at 13 STR loci, plus Amelogenin (AMEL) to determine sex.



I read something about CODIS, but I don't know too much about it, if any one could give me some specifics that would be helpful.


closed as too broad by canadianer, Chris, Oreotrephes, AliceD, The Last Word May 28 '15 at 4:30

Please edit the question to limit it to a specific problem with enough detail to identify an adequate answer. Avoid asking multiple distinct questions at once. See the How to Ask page for help clarifying this question. If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center, please edit the question.

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    $\begingroup$ The human genome is 3 billion letters long. You aren't going to look at all of that, are you? You have to know what you want to look at. Are you just trying to examine the microsatillites that are used in DNA fingerprinting? $\endgroup$ – swbarnes2 May 27 '15 at 16:41
  • $\begingroup$ @swbarnes2 Sorry I was not thinking, I want to look at a microsatillite area, a subset i believe is called STR(single tandem repeats), since they have been used before in identification historically? $\endgroup$ – Ro Siv May 27 '15 at 16:48
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    $\begingroup$ Saying that you want to look at the STR is still pretty broad. $\endgroup$ – Chris May 27 '15 at 16:55
  • $\begingroup$ @Chris I guess I want to do the same type of identification that the FBI does with its CODIS system $\endgroup$ – Ro Siv May 27 '15 at 17:51

The References and External Links sections of the Wikipedia article in your question contain a great deal of relevant information to get you started. There is a link to the FBI's CODIS and NDIS (National DNA Index System) Fact Sheet, which contains a lot of relevant information, including part numbers for validated kits from several manufacturers. DOI numbers for some journal articles are given in the Wikipedia article as well, wherein you may be able to find specific primer sequences or references for them. Finally, there is a link to the main CODIS page on FBI.gov, which contains an abundance of useful information, including the NDIS operational procedures manual.

You just need to look to find what you seek.


Extracting genomic DNA and PCR are different processes. Extracting genomic DNA means that you get all the DNA sequences from human genome. Using extracted DNA, you can amplify a specific region from the whole genomic sequence.

A primer set is usually set at the both ends of a sequence you want to amplify the sequence. In your case, you the region highlighted in yellow in the figure "CODIS markers" of the wiki would be amplified.

Different people may set primers differently even if they want to amplify the same region; however, in this case, primer sequences are already determined to get consistent results. If you would like to know the actual sequences that FBI is using, you (or someone or I) have to search to find them.

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    $\begingroup$ By the way, some protocols may skip the extraction process--taking several micro litters of buffer-suspension of samples or something like this. It may depend on whether the PCR enzyme can overcome inhibitory effects of crude DNA solutions to amplify fragments. $\endgroup$ – 243 May 27 '15 at 22:08

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