In recent years, clinical trials are all necessary. You have to have the randomised control To make sure it isn't a placebo effect. If and only if the drug seems to be super effective will they cut the randomised control short and give the real drug to everyone.
Sadly, while it may seem unethical, there was a cancer treatment that two cousins got into. The normal treatment guaranteed death, while the new drug actually had people practically bouncing off their death beds. One got the placebo - in this case normal treatment since it's unethical to not at least give standard care - and the other got the drug. The drug worked so well, the doctors tried to push to cut the trial short but they wouldn't and the one on the normal treatment died.
This drug was PLX4032.
clinical trial information
So to my knowledge about clinical trials, no trial has been able to skip that stage. It's actually Called Phase III testing of the drug, followed by Phase IV which is administration to the public. It can, however, be shortened if it is promising enough.