Lets state what a Mutation is first.
Mutation: A mutation is any change in an organism's genetic sequence which varies from that of the wild-type reference sequence (hg19/GrCH37 from 2009 or hg38/GrCH38 from 2013, which are the most current genome assembly).
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs): These are any single nucleotide base mutations which have been validated to be present in more than 1% of the population with the help of Genome-wide Association Studies.
Structural Variations: These are any mutations which cause a change in the organism's chromosome structure, such as Insertions, deletions, copy number variations, duplications, inversions and translocation.
For more please read Wiki Link here.
Thanks to WYSIWYG for his interesting question regarding SNPs.
This piqued my interest a bit, and to my surprise I found that the same actually applies to all other species for example chickens; This paper from way back in 2002 describes how EST mining was sometimes used to generate potential SNPs but also notes the possible false positives due to the possibility of RNA-Editing.
This paper describes the usage of SNPs to allocate bovine individuals to their source population. As does this paper which highlights the economic importance that SNPs may hold for identifying pure breeds and crossbreeds.
Apparently there are also SNP chips available for other animals as highlighted by this particular paper