I am trying to understand if they are the same as the blood antigens. The books I have tried to read say something about them being the antigens on the surface of the red blood cell.
Blood group A expresses A antigens and anti-B antibodies etc etc, see the next figure:
Taken from the wikipedia entry on blood groups.
In immunology, determinant is another name for epitope (the portion of an antigen recognized by a BCR/Ab or TCR).